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Keywords:

  • G-CSF;
  • IBD;
  • probiotics;
  • IL-23

Abstract

Background: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the hematopoiesis of granulocytes, neuroprotection, and immunomodulation. Previously, we have shown that probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 induces G-CSF production from bone marrow-derived macrophages. Whether this probiotic also induces G-CSF in intestinal mononuclear cells is unknown.

Methods: G-CSF release in response to L. rhamnosus GR-1 was analyzed in isolated intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients. The effects of G-CSF on proinflammatory cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal tissue from C57BL/6 wildtype and G-CSF receptor knockout mice was examined.

Results: Normal mouse or human intestinal lamina propria cells constitutively express high levels of G-CSF, of which production was further enhanced by exogenous L. rhamnosus GR-1. However, cells obtained from IBD patients showed reduced G-CSF production under basal conditions and also lower production after exogenous GR-1 treatments. Intestinal tissue samples isolated from G-CSF receptor-deficient mice constitutively expressed higher levels of TNFα, IL-23, and IL-12 than those from wildtype mice, and pretreatment of G-CSF suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-23 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Conclusions: These results suggest that high G-CSF production induced by commensals such as L. rhamnosus is important in maintaining normal immunological homeostasis in the intestine and defects in the production of G-CSF are associated with IBD.

(Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008)