Crohn's disease (CD) recurrence is currently assessed by ileocolonoscopy. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) visualizes the small bowel lesions in CD, although its role after curative resection is undefined. We aimed to investigate the accuracy of SICUS in assessing CD recurrence after ileocolonic resection when using ileocolonoscopy as a gold standard. The correlation between the bowel wall thickness (BWT) measured by SICUS and the endoscopic score of recurrence was also assessed.
The analysis included 72 CD patients with ileocolonic resection requiring ileocolonoscopy, undergoing SICUS within 6 months. Recurrence was assessed by ileocolonoscopy using the Rutgeerts' score. SICUS was performed after PEG ingestion and findings compatible with recurrence included: increased BWT (>3 mm), bowel dilation (>25 mm) or stricture (<10 mm).
Ileocolonoscopy detected recurrence in 67/72 (93%) patients. SICUS detected findings compatible with recurrence in 62/72 (86%) patients (5 false negative (FN), 4 false positive (FP), 1 true negative (TN), 62 true positive (TP)), showing a 92.5% sensitivity, 20% specificity, and 87.5% accuracy for detecting CD recurrence. The BWT detected by SICUS was correlated with the Rutgeerts' score (P = 0.0001; r = 0.67). The median BWT, the extent of the ileal lesions, and the prestenotic dilation were higher in patients with an endoscopic degree of recurrence ≥3 versus ≤2 (P < 0.001) and the lumen diameter was lower in patients with a Rutgeerts' score ≥3 versus ≤2 (P < 0.0001).
Although SICUS and ileocolonoscopy provide different views of the small bowel, SICUS shows a significant correlation with the endoscopic findings. SICUS may represent an alternative noninvasive technique for assessing CD recurrence after ileocolonic resection. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009)