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Keywords:

  • pediatric;
  • inflammatory bowel disease;
  • thromboembolism

Abstract

Background:

Several studies suggest an increased risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism (TE) in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to the general population. We performed a systematic review of studies on incidence and characteristic of TE in children with IBD.

Methods:

We searched Medline, LILACS, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINHAL, and reference lists of identified articles, without language restrictions, in August 2010.

Results:

Population studies suggest that there is an increased risk of TE in children with IBD compared to controls. TE occurred in children with IBD in all age ranges, mostly (82.8%) during active disease, and more frequently in children with ulcerative colitis (odds ratio [OR] 3.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–7.6). At least one specific risk factor for TE was recognized in 50% of cases; two risk factors were present in 24%. Out of 92 published cases of TE in children with IBD, 54.3% occurred in cerebral site, 26% in the limbs, 13% in the abdominal vessels, and the remaining in the retina and lungs. After a first episode of TE, an early recurrence was observed in 11.4% of children, a late recurrence in 10%. A number of different therapeutic schemes were used. Overall mortality was 5.7% and was mostly associated with cerebral TE.

Conclusions:

Population studies are needed to clarify the risk of TE in children with IBD, the relative weight of other risk factors, the characteristics of the events, and to define guidelines of therapy and prophylaxis. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010)