• 1
    Baumgart DC, Sandborn WJ. Inflammatory bowel disease: clinical aspects and established and evolving therapies. Lancet. 2007; 369: 16411657.
  • 2
    Moser G, Tillinger W, Sachs G, et al. Disease-related worries and concerns: a study on out-patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995; 7: 853858.
  • 3
    Velin AK, Ericson AC, Braaf Y, et al. Increased antigen and bacterial uptake in follicle associated epithelium induced by chronic psychological stress in rats. Gut. 2004; 53: 494500.
  • 4
    Gué M, Bonbonne C, Fioramonti J, et al. Stress-induced enhancement of colitis in rats: CRF and arginine vasopressin are not involved. Am J Physiol. 1997; 272: G84G91.
  • 5
    Alonso C, Guilarte M, Vicario M, et al. Maladaptive intestinal epithelial responses to life stress may predispose healthy women to gut mucosal inflammation. Gastroenterology. 2008; 135: 163172.
  • 6
    Santos J, Alonso C, Vicario M, et al. Neuropharmacology of stress-induced mucosal inflammation: implications for inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Mol Med. 2008; 8: 258273.
  • 7
    Cámara RJ, Ziegler R, Begré S, et al; Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study (SIBDCS) group. The role of psychological stress in inflammatory bowel disease: quality assessment of methods of 18 prospective studies and suggestions for future research. Digestion. 2009; 80: 129139.
  • 8
    Cámara RJ, Begré S, von Känel R. [The effect of stress-relieving interventions on inflammatory bowel disease: quality assessment of 10 therapeutic studies.] In German. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2010; 56: 116135.
  • 9
    Lennard-Jones JE. Classification of inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1989; 170: 26.
  • 10
    Borenstein M, Rothstein H, Cohen J. Power and precision, 1st ed. Englewood, NJ: Biostat; 2001.
  • 11
    Cámara RJ, Lukas PS, Begré S, et al; Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study (SIBDCS) Group. Effects of social support on the clinical course of Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 12
    Best WR, Becktel JM, Singleton JW, et al. Development of a Crohn's disease activity index. National cooperative Crohn's disease study. Gastroenterology. 1976; 70: 439444.
  • 13
    Levenstein S, Prantera C, Varvo V, et al. Development of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire: a new tool for psychosomatic research. J Psychosom Res. 1993; 37: 1932.
  • 14
    Levenstein S, Prantera C, Varvo V, et al. Stress and exacerbation in ulcerative colitis: a prospective study of patients enrolled in remission. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 12131220.
    Direct Link:
  • 15
    Herrmann Ch, Buss U, Snaith RP. HADS-D Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Deutsche Version, 1st ed. Bern, Switzerland: Hans Huber; 1995.
  • 16
    Felley C, Mottet C, Juillerat P, et al. Fistulizing Crohn's disease. Digestion. 2007; 76: 109112.
  • 17
    Loly C, Belaiche J, Louis E. Predictors of severe Crohn's disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008; 43: 948954.
  • 18
    Baumgart DC, Carding SR. Inflammatory bowel disease: cause and immunobiology. Lancet. 2007; 369: 16271640.
  • 19
    Loftus EV Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: 15041517.
  • 20
    Maunder RG, Levenstein S. The role of stress in the development and clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiological evidence. Curr Mol Med. 2008; 8: 247252.
  • 21
    Mittermaier C, Dejaco C, Waldhoer T, et al. Impact of depressive mood on relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective 18-month follow-up study. Psychosom Med. 2004; 66: 7984.
  • 22
    Bitton A, Dobkin PL, Edwardes MD, et al. Predicting relapse in Crohn's disease: a biopsychosocial model. Gut. 2008; 57: 13861392.
  • 23
    Cámara RJ, Gander ML, Begré S, et al. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study (SIBDCS) Group. Post-traumatic stress in Crohn's disease and its association with disease activity. Frontline Gastroenterol. 2010 [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1136/fg.2010.002733.
  • 24
    Babyak MA. What you see may not be what you get: a brief, nontechnical introduction to overfitting in regression-type models. Psychosom Med. 2004; 66: 411421.
  • 25
    Peduzzi P, Concato J, Kemper E, et al. A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996; 49: 13731379.
  • 26
    Pittet V, Juillerat P, Mottet C, et al; Swiss IBD Cohort Study Group. Cohort profile: the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study (SIBDCS). Int J Epidemiol. 2009; 38: 922931.