• 1
    Voices of Progress Annual Report 2008 [CCFA Web site]. August 31, 2008. Available at: Accessed March 8, 2010.
  • 2
    Bernstein CN, Wajda A, Svenson LW, et al. The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 15591568.
    Direct Link:
  • 3
    Wolters FL, Russel MG, Sijbrandij J, et al. Disease outcome of inflammatory bowel disease patients: general outline of a Europe-wide population-based 10-year clinical follow-up study. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 2006; 243: 4654.
  • 4
    Loftus EV, Schoenfeld P, Sandborn WJ. The epidemiology and natural history of Crohn's disease in population-based patient cohorts from North America: a systematic review. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002; 16: 5160.
  • 5
    Louis E, Collard A, Oger AF, et al. Behaviour of Crohn's disease according to the Vienna classification: changing pattern over the course of the disease. Gut. 2001; 49: 777782.
  • 6
    Cosnes J, Cattan S, Blain A, et al. Long-term evolution of disease behavior of Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2002; 8: 244250.
  • 7
    Beaugerie L, Seksik P, Nion-Larmurier I, et al. Predictors of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 650656.
  • 8
    Romberg-Camps MJL, Dagnelie PC, Kester ADM, et al. Influence of phenotype at diagnosis and of other potential prognostic factors on the course of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104: 371383.
  • 9
    Cottone M, Rosselli M, Orlando A, et al. Smoking habits and recurrence in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 1994; 106: 643648.
  • 10
    Cosnes J, Carbonnel F, Beaugerie L, et al. Effects of cigarette smoking on the long-term course of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 1996; 110: 424431.
  • 11
    Hanauer SB. Positioning biologic agents in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009; 15: 15701582.
  • 12
    D'Haens G, Baert F, Van Assche G, et al. Early combined immunosuppression or conventional management in patients with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease: an open randomised trial. Lancet. 2008; 371: 660667.
  • 13
    Baert F, Moortgat L, Van Assche G, et al. Mucosal healing predicts sustained clinical remission in patients with early-stage Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138: 463468.
  • 14
    Arnott ID, Landers CJ, Nimmo EJ, et al. Sero-reactivity to microbial components in Crohn's disease is associated with disease severity and progression, but not NOD2/CARD15 genotype. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004; 99: 23762384.
    Direct Link:
  • 15
    Mow WS, Vasiliauskas EA, Lin YC, et al. Association of antibody responses to microbial antigens and complications of small bowel Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: 414424.
  • 16
    Vasiliauskas EA, Kam LY, Karp LC, et al. Marker antibody expression stratifies Crohn's disease into immunologically homogeneous subgroups with distinct clinical characteristics. Gut. 2000; 47: 487496
  • 17
    Targan SR, Landers CJ, Yang H, et al. Antibodies to CBir1 flagellin define a unique response that is associated independently with complicated Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2005; 128: 20202028.
  • 18
    Lichtenstein GR. Emerging prognostic markers to determine Crohn's disease natural history and improve management strategies: a review of recent literature. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 6: 99107.
  • 19
    Dubinsky MC, Lin YC, Dutridge D, et al. Serum immune responses predict rapid disease progression among children with Crohn's disease: immune responses predict disease progression. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 360367.
    Direct Link:
  • 20
    Barrett JC, Hansoul S, Nicolae DL, et al. Genome-wide association defines more than 30 distinct susceptibility loci for Crohn's disease. Nat Genet. 2008; 40: 955962.
  • 21
    Devlin SM, Yang H, Ippoliti A, et al. NOD2 variants and antibody response to microbial antigens in Crohn's disease patients and their unaffected relatives. Gastroenterology. 2007; 132: 576586.
  • 22
    Abreu MT, Taylor KD, Lin YC, et al. Mutations in NOD2 are associated with fibrostenosing disease in patients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123: 679688.
  • 23
    Cho JH, Abraham C. Inflammatory bowel disease genetics: NOD2. Annu Rev Med. 2007; 58: 401416.
  • 24
    Maeda S, Hsu LC, Liu H, et al. NOD2 mutation in Crohn's disease potentiates NF-kappaB activity and IL-1beta processing. Science. 2005; 307: 734738.
  • 25
    Girardin SE, Boneca IG, Viala J, et al. NOD2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through muramyl dipeptide (MDP) detection. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 88698872.
  • 26
    Annese V, Lombardi G, Perri F, et al. Variants of CARD15 are associated with an aggressive clinical course of Crohn's Disease — an IG-IBD study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 8492.
    Direct Link:
  • 27
    Heliö T, Halme L, Lappalainen M, et al. CARD15/NOD2 gene variants are associated with familially occurring and complicated forms of Crohn's disease. Gut. 2003; 52: 558562.
  • 28
    Ippoliti A, Devlin S, Mei L, et al. Combination of innate and adaptive immune alterations increased the likelihood of fibrostenosis in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010; 16: 12791285.
  • 29
    Silverberg MS, Satsangi J, Ahmad T, et al. Toward an integrated clinical, molecular and serological classification of inflammatory bowel disease: report of a Working Party of the 2005 Montreal World Congress of Gastroenterology. Can J Gastroenterol. 2005; 19( suppl A): 536.
  • 30
    Sutton CL, Kim J, Yamane A, et al. Identification of a novel bacterial sequence associated with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2000; 119: 2331.
  • 31
    Sendid B, Colombel JF, Jacquinot PM, et al. Specific antibody response to oligomannosidic epitopes in Crohn's disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996; 3: 219226.
  • 32
    Lodes MJ, Cong Y, Elson CO, et al. Bacterial flagellin is a dominant antigen in Crohn disease. J Clin Invest. 2004; 113: 12961306.
  • 33
    Cohavy O, Bruckner D, Gordon LK, et al. Colonic bacteria express an ulcerative colitis pANCA-related protein epitope. Infect Immun. 2000; 68: 15421548.
  • 34
    Vidrich A, Lee J, James E, et al. Segregation of pANCA antigenic recognition by DNase treatment of neutrophils: ulcerative colitis, type 1 autoimmune hepatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Clin Immunol. 1995; 15: 293299.
  • 35
    Harrell FE Jr. Regression Modeling Strategies with Applications to Linear Models, Logistic Regression, and Survival Analysis. New York: Springer; 2001.
  • 36
    Dubinsky MC, Kugathasan S, Mei L, et al. Increased immune reactivity predicts aggressive complicating Crohn's disease in children. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 6: 11051111.
  • 37
    Landers CJ, Cohavy O, Misra R, et al. Selected loss of tolerance evidenced by Crohn's disease-associated immune responses to auto- and microbial antigens. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123: 689699.
  • 38
    Desir B, Amre DK, Lu S-E, et al. Utility of serum antibodies in determining clinical course in pediatric Crohn's disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2: 139146.
  • 39
    Rieder F, Schleder S, Wolf A, et al. Serum anti-glycan antibodies predict complicated Crohn's disease behavior: a cohort study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010; 16: 13671375.