• 1
    Maunder RG. Evidence that stress contributes to inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation, synthesis, and future directions. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2005; 11: 600608.
  • 2
    Maunder RG, Levenstein S. The role of stress in the development and clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiological evidence. Curr Mol Med. 2008; 8: 247252.
  • 3
    Rampton D. Does stress influence inflammatory bowel disease? The clinical data. Dig Dis. 2009; 27( suppl 1): 7679.
  • 4
    Bernstein CN, Singh S, Graff LA, et al. A prospective population-based study of triggers of symptomatic flares in IBD. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010; 105: 19942002.
  • 5
    Levenstein S, Prantera C, Varvo V, et al. Stress and exacerbation in ulcerative colitis: a prospective study of patients enrolled in remission. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 12131220.
    Direct Link:
  • 6
    Bitton A, Sewitch MJ, Peppercorn MA, et al. Psychosocial determinants of relapse in ulcerative colitis: a longitudinal study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98: 22032208.
    Direct Link:
  • 7
    Vidal A, Gomez-Gil E, Sans M, et al. Life events and inflammatory bowel disease relapse: a prospective study of patients enrolled in remission. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 775781.
  • 8
    North CS, Alpers DH, Helzer JE, et al. Do life events or depression exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease? Ann Int Med. 1991; 114: 381386.
  • 9
    Riley SA, Mani V, Goodman MJ, et al. Why do patients with ulcerative colitis relapse? Gut. 1989; 31: 179183.
  • 10
    Elenkov IJ, Wilder RL, Chrousos GP, et al. The sympathetic nerve—an integrative interface between two supersystems: the brain and the immune system. Pharmacol Rev. 2000; 52: 595638.
  • 11
    Matsunaga K, Klein TW, Friedman H, et al. Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in suppression of antimicrobial activity and cytokine responses of alveolar macrophages to Legionella pneumophila infection by nicotine. J Immunol. 2001; 167: 65186524.
  • 12
    Bernik TR, Friedman SG, Ochani M, et al. Pharmacological stimulation of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. J Exp Med. 2002; 195: 781788.
  • 13
    Tracey KJ. The inflammatory reflex. Nature. 2002; 420: 853859.
  • 14
    Borovikova LV, Ivanova S, Zhang M, et al. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin. Nature. 2000; 405: 458462.
  • 15
    McCafferty DM, Wallace JL, Sharkey KA. Effects of chemical sympathectomy and sensory nerve ablation on experimental colitis in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1997; 272( 2 Pt 1): G272G280.
  • 16
    Furlan R, Ardizzone S, Palazzolo L, et al. Sympathetic overactivity in active ulcerative colitis: effects of clonidine. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006; 290: R224R232.
  • 17
    Eliakim R, Karmeli F, Rachmilewitz D, et al. Effect of chronic nicotine administration on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998; 10: 10131019.
  • 18
    Ghia JE, Blennerhassett P, Collins SM. Impaired parasympathetic function increases susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease in a mouse model of depression. J Clin Invest. 2008; 118: 22092218.
  • 19
    Heart rate variability: standards of measurementphysiological interpretation and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Circulation. 1996; 93: 10431065.
  • 20
    Sharma P, Makharia GK, Ahuja V, et al. Autonomic dysfunctions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in clinical remission. Dig Dis Sci. 2009; 54: 853861.
  • 21
    Coruzzi P, Castiglioni P, Parati G, et al. Autonomic cardiovascular regulation in quiescent ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Eur J Clin Invest. 2007; 37: 964970.
  • 22
    Maunder RG, Greenberg GR, Nolan RP, et al. Autonomic response to standardized stress predicts subsequent disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 18: 413420.
  • 23
    Ellis BJ, Essex MJ, Boyce WT. Biological sensitivity to context: II. Empirical explorations of an evolutionary-developmental theory. Dev Psychopathol. 2005; 17: 303328.
  • 24
    Uchino BN, Cacioppo JT, Kielcolt-Glaser JK. The relationship between social support and physiological processes: a review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychol Bull. 1996; 119: 488531.
  • 25
    Martin LA, Doster JA, Critelli JW, et al. The ‘distressed’ personality, coping and cardiovascular risk. Stress Health. 2011; 27: 6472.
  • 26
    Cosley BJ, McCoy SK, Saslow LR, et al. Is compassion for others stress buffering? Consequences of compassion and social support for physiologica. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2010; 46: 816823.
  • 27
    Schwerdtfeger A, Friedrich-Mai P. Social interaction moderates the relationship between depressive mood and heart rate variability: evidence from an ambulatory monitoring study. Health Psychol. 2009; 28: 501509.
  • 28
    Randall G, Bhattacharyya MR, Steptoe A. Marital status and heart rate variability in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Ann Behav Med. 2009; 38: 115123.
  • 29
    Maunder RG, Lancee WJ, Nolan RP, et al. The relationship of attachment insecurity to subjective stress and autonomic function during standardized acute stress in healthy adults. J Psychosom Res. 2006; 60: 283290.
  • 30
    Diamond LM, Hicks AM. Attachment style, current relationship security, and negative emotions: the mediating role of physiological regulation. J Soc Personal Relat. 2005; 22: 499518.
  • 31
    Horsten M, Ericson M, Perski A, et al. Psychosocial factors and heart rate variability in healthy women. Psychosom Med. 1999; 61: 4957.
  • 32
    Rini C, Jandorf L, Valdimarsdottir H, et al. Distress among inflammatory bowel disease patients at high risk for colorectal cancer: a preliminary investigation of the effects of family history of cancer, disease duration, and perceived social support. Psychooncology. 2008; 17: 354362.
  • 33
    Maunder RG, Greenberg GR, Lancee WJ, et al. The impact of ulcerative colitis is greater in unmarried and young patients. Can J Gastroenterol. 2007; 21: 715720.
  • 34
    Oliveira S, Zaltman C, Elia C, et al. Quality-of-life measurement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving social support. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007; 13: 470474.
  • 35
    Maunder RG, Greenberg GR, Hunter JJ, et al. Psychobiological subtypes of ulcerative colitis: pANCA status moderates the relationship between disease activity and psychological distress. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 25462551.
    Direct Link:
  • 36
    Diehr MC, Cherner M, Wolfson TJ, et al. The 50 and 100-item short forms of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): demographically corrected norms and comparisons with the full PASAT in normal and clinical samples. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003; 25: 571585.
  • 37
    Mathias CW, Stanford MS, Houston RJ. The physiological experience of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): does the PASAT induce autonomic arousal? Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2004; 19: 543554.
  • 38
    Tsuji H, Venditti FJ Jr, Mander ES, et al. Determinants of heart rate variability. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 28: 15391546.
  • 39
    Sarason IG, Levine H, Basham RB, et al. Assessing social support: the social support questionnaire. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1983; 44: 127139.
  • 40
    Sarason IG, Sarason BR, Shearin EN, et al. A brief measure of social support: Practical and theoretical implications. J Soc Personal Relat. 1987; 4: 497510.
  • 41
    Cohen S, Doyle WJ, Skoner DP, et al. Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold. JAMA. 1997; 277: 19401944.
  • 42
    Rosengren A, Orth-Gomer K, Wedel H, et al. Stressful life events, social support, and mortality in men born in 1933. BMJ. 1993; 307: 11021105.
  • 43
    Orth-Gomér K, Rosengren A, Wilhelmsen L. Lack of social support and incidence of coronary heart disease in middle-aged Swedish men. Psychosom Med. 1993; 55: 3743.
  • 44
    Mikulincer M, Shaver PR. Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamics, and Change. New York: Guilford, 2007.
  • 45
    Porges SW. The Polyvagal Theory: phylogenetic contributions to social behavior. Physiol Behav. 2003; 79: 503513.
  • 46
    Schore AN. Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994.
  • 47
    Eskandari F, Webster JI, Sternberg EM. Neural immune pathways and their connection to inflammatory diseases. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003; 5: 251265.