• 1
    Scaldaferri F, Fiocchi C. Inflammatory bowel disease: progress and current concepts of etiopathogenesis. J Dig Dis. 2007; 8: 171178.
  • 2
    Mahid SS, Mulhall AM, Gholson RD, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease and African Americans: a systematic review. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 960967.
  • 3
    Reddy SI, Burakoff R. Inflammatory bowel disease in African Americans. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2003; 9: 380385.
  • 4
    Jackson JF, Kornbluth A. Do Black and Hispanic Americans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receive inferior care compared with white Americans? Uneasy questions and speculations. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 13431349.
    Direct Link:
  • 5
    Hiatt RA, Kaufman L. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in a defined Northern California population. West J Med. 1988; 149: 541546.
  • 6
    Flasar MH, Quezada S, Bijpuria P, et al. Racial differences in disease extent and severity in patients with ulcerative colitis: a retrospective cohort study. Dig Dis Sci. 2008; 53: 27542760.
  • 7
    Flasar MH, Johnson T, Roghmann MC, et al. Disparities in the use of immunomodulators and biologics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective cohort study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 1319.
  • 8
    Simsek H, Schuman BM. Inflammatory bowel disease in 64 Black patients: analysis of course, complications, and surgery. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1989; 11: 294298.
  • 9
    Basu D, Lopez I, Kulkarni A, et al. Impact of race and ethnicity on inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 22542261.
    Direct Link:
  • 10
    Nguyen GC, Torres EA, Regueiro M, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease characteristics among African Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites: characterization of a large North American cohort. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 10121023.
    Direct Link:
  • 11
    Goldman CD, Kodner IJ, Fry RD, et al. Clinical and operative experience with non-Caucasian patients with Crohn's disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 1986; 29: 317321.
  • 12
    Straus WL, Eisen GM, Sandler RS, et al. Crohn's disease: does race matter? The Mid-Atlantic Crohn's disease study group. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 479483.
    Direct Link:
  • 13
    Cross RK, Jung C, Wasan S, et al. Racial differences in disease phenotypes in patients with Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006; 12: 192198.
  • 14
    Deveaux PG, Kimberling J, Galandiuk S. Crohn's disease: presentation and severity compared between Black patients and White patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005; 48: 14041409.
  • 15
    Kurata JH, Kantor-Fish S, Frankl H, et al. Crohn's disease among ethnic groups in a large health maintenance organization. Gastroenterology. 1992; 102: 19401948.
  • 16
    Nguyen GC, Laveist TA, Gearhart S, Bayless TM, et al. Racial and geographic variations in colectomy rates among hospitalized ulcerative colitis patients. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 4: 15071513.
  • 17
    Silverberg MS, Satsangi J, Ahmad T, et al. Toward an integrated clinical, molecular and serological classification of inflammatory bowel disease: report of a Working Party of the 2005 Montreal World Congress of Gastroenterology. Can J Gastroenterol. 2005; 19( suppl A): 536.
  • 18
    Kornbluth A, Sachar DB, Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults (update): American College of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004; 99: 13711385.
    Direct Link:
  • 19
    Ogunbi SO, Ransom JA, Sullivan K, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease in African-American children living in Georgia. J Pediatr. 1998; 133: 103107.
  • 20
    Laiyemo AO, Doubeni C, Pinsky PF, et al. Race and colorectal cancer disparities: health-care utilization vs different cancer susceptibilities. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010; 102: 538546.
  • 21
    Ayotte BJ, Kressin NR. Race differences in cardiac catheterization: the role of social contextual variables. J Gen Intern Med. 2010; 25: 814818.
  • 22
    Flasar MH, Johnson T, Roghmann MC, et al. Disparities in the use of immunomodulators and biologics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective cohort study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 1319.
  • 23
    Evans PE, Pardi DS. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: focus on the musculoskeletal, dermatologic, and ocular manifestations. MedGenMed. 2007; 9: 55.