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Keywords:

  • Crohn's disease;
  • ulcerative colitis;
  • proton pump inhibitors;
  • antibiotic exposure

Abstract

Background:

Epidemiological and microbiological data suggest that Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) plays a substantial role in the clinical initiation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CDI in newly diagnosed pediatric patients with IBD.

Methods:

The current investigation was a retrospective study. All patients newly diagnosed with IBD in the pediatric gastroenterology clinic in Warsaw between 2007 and 2010 were included in the present study. The patients were diagnosed according to Porto criteria and microbiology evaluation screening tests for CDI were conducted. Risk factors including prior hospitalization, use of antibiotics within 2 months of CDI detection, colonic involvement, and the duration of symptoms were evaluated. CDI diagnosis was based on a positive stool enzyme immunoassay.

Results:

In the present study, 134 patients were evaluated (54 patients with Crohn's disease, and 80 with ulcerative colitis; 87% of the patients had colonic disease). The average age of the patients was 12.3 years, and the prevalence of CDI was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38%–56%). Significant differences in the prevalence of CDI between patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (P = 0.72; odds ratio [OR] = 1.187, 95% CI, 0.56–2.52) were not observed. The risk of CDI was associated with an increase in the age of the patient and the severity of the disease.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of CDI in newly diagnosed IBD patients was high and was independent of the type of disease. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011;)