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Keywords:

  • Th1 cell;
  • Th2 cell

Abstract

A large body of evidence indicates the existence of functionally polarized CD4+ T-cell responses based on their profile of cytokine secretion. Type 1 T helper (Th1) cells produce interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-β, which activate macrophages and are responsible for cell-mediated immunity and phagocyte-dependent protective responses. By contrast, type 2 Th (Th2) cells produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, which are responsible for strong antibody production, eosinophil activation, and inhibition of several macrophage functions, thus providing phagocyte-independent protective responses. Th1 cells mainly develop following infections by intracellular bacteria and some viruses, whereas Th2 cells predominate in response to infestations by gastrointestinal nematodes. Polarized Th1 and Th2 cells not only exhibit different functional properties, but also show the preferential expression of some activation markers and distinct transcription factors. Several mechanisms may influence the Th cell differentiation, which include the cytokine profile of “natural immunity” evoked by different offending agents, the nature of the peptide ligand, as well as the activity of some costimulatory molecules and microenvironmentally secreted hormones, in the context of the individual genetic background. In addition to playing different roles in protection, polarized Th1-type and Th2-type responses are also responsible for different types of immunopathological reactions. Th1 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmune disorders, Crohn's disease, Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer, acute kidney allograft rejection, and unexplained recurrent abortions. In contrast, allergen-specific Th2 responses are responsible for atopic disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. Moreover, Th2 responses against still unknown antigens predominate in Omenn's syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and progressive systemic sclerosis. Finally, the prevalence of Th2 responses may play some role in a more rapid evolution of human immunodeficiency virus infection to the full-blown disease. The Th1/Th2 paradigm also provides the rationale for the development of new types of vaccines against infectious agents and of novel strategies for the therapy of allergic and autoimmune disorders.