Integrating toxicity reduction strategies for materials and components into product design: A case study on utility meters
Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013
Copyright © 2012 SETAC
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Volume 9, Issue 2, pages 319–328, April 2013
How to Cite
Lam, C. W., Lim, S.-R., Ogunseitan, O. A., Shapiro, A. A., Saphores, J.-D. M., Brock, A. and Schoenung, J. M. (2013), Integrating toxicity reduction strategies for materials and components into product design: A case study on utility meters. Integr Environ Assess Manag, 9: 319–328. doi: 10.1002/ieam.1384
- Issue published online: 25 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 28 NOV 2012 01:25PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 7 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 11 MAY 2012
- [ACGIH] American Conference of Industrial Hygienists. 2009. Guide to occupational exposure values. Cincinnati (OH): ACGIH. 232 p.
- 2010. Materials selection in mechanical design. Oxford (UK): Butterworth-Heinemann. 664 p.
- 2006. Life cycle assessment of a personal computer and its effective recycling rate. Int J Life Cycle Assess 11:122–128. , , ,
- 2009. Life cycle design metrics for energy generation technologies: Method, data, and case study. J Power Sources 186:138–157. , , , ,
- [CPA] Clean Production Action. 2009. The Green Screen for safer chemicals. [cited 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.cleanproduction.org/Greenscreen.php
- [DFG] German Research Foundation. 2011. Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area. [cited 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.dfg.de/en/dfg_profile/statutory_bodies/senate/health_hazards/index.html
- [DTSC] California Department of Toxic Substances Control. 2012. California Green Chemistry Initiative [cited 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/pollutionprevention/greenchemistryinitiative
- 2009. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer. Sci Total Environ 407:1755–1764. , , , ,
- [EC] European Council. 1967. Directive 67/548/EEC: Approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labeling of dangerous substances. Brussels, Belgium: European Union. p 1–98.
- [EC] European Council. 2001. Directive 2001/59/EC Annex III: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. Brussels. Belgium: European Union. p 1–333.
- [EC] European Council. 2003. Directive 2002/95/EC: Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Brussels, Belgium: European Union. p 19–23.
- 2006. The New International Standards for Life Cycle Assessment: ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. Int J Life Cycle Assess 11:80–85. , , , ,
- Fraunhofer. 2002. Toxic potential indicator (TPI) calculator. [cited 2012 April 24] Available from: http://www.izm.fraunhofer.de/
- 2005. Customization of the toxic potential indicator for Japanese regulation. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing; 2005 Dec. 12-14; Tokyo, Japan. IEEE p 816–817. , ,
- Granta. 2009. CES selector. Cambridge (UK): Granta.
- 1998. Materials selection for optimal environmental impact in mechanical design. Mater Des 19:133–143.
- [IFA] German Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2012. Database on hazardous substances. [cited 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/en/gestis/stoffdb/index.jsp
- 1993. The application of life cycle assessment to design. J Clean Prod 1:143–149.
- 2012. International harmonization of models for selecting less toxic chemical alternatives: Effect of regulatory disparities in the US and Europe. Integr Environ Assess Manag 8:723–730. , , , , ,
- 2011. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): Metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification. Environ Sci Technol 45:320–327. , , ,
- 2011. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition. Sci Total Environ 409:3309–3324. , ,
- [LME] London Metal Exchange. 2012. [cited 2012 April 29]. Available from: http://www.lme.co.uk
- [MassDEP] Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. 2012. Toxics Use Reduction Act. [cited 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.mass.gov/dep/toxics/toxicsus.htm
- MatWeb. 2012. Online Materials Information Resource-Matweb. [cited 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.matweb.com
- 2007. Does the potential of the use of LCA match the design team needs? J Clean Prod 15:335–346. , , , ,
- 1998. An environmental comparison of packaging and interconnection technologies. In: Proceedings IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment (ISEE); 1998 May 4-6; Oak Brook (IL): IEEE. p 106–111. , , , , ,
- 2012. Human health and ecotoxicological considerations in materials selection for sustainable product development. Mater Res Soc Bull 37:356–363. ,
- 1993. Leaching of diethylhexyl phthalate from polyvinyl chloride containers by selected drugs and formulation components. Am J Health-Sys Pharm 50:1405–1409. ,
- Plastics Technology. 2012. The online magazine of Plastics Technology. [cited 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.ptonline.com
- [REACH] Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. 2006. Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency. European Council.
- RIO Tronics. 2012. RIO Tronics—Meter reading systems manufacturer. [cited 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.riotronics.com
- 1994. Exposure to stainless steel welding fumes and lung cancer: A meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med 51:335–336. , , ,
- 2002. Desktop computer displays: A life-cycle assessment. Washington, DC: USEPA. EPA 744-R- 01-004. , , ,
- 1997. A screening method for ranking and scoring chemicals by potential human health and environmental impacts. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:372–383. , , , , , ,
- 2003. Research issues in sustainable consumption: Toward an analytical framework for materials and the environment. Environ Sci Technol 37:5383–5388. ,
- [UBA] German Federal Environment Agency. 2011. Water, drinking water, and water protection substances hazardous to waters. [cited 2012 April 29] Available from: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/wgs-e/vwvws.htm
- [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Framework for metals risk assessment. Washington, DC: USEPA. EPA 120/R-07/001.
- [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. Use Cluster Scoring System (UCSS). [cited 2012 April 24]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/oppt/cahp/pubs/use.htm
- [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. Design for the environment program alternatives assessment criteria for hazard evaluation, version 2.0. Washington, DC: USEPA.
- Washington State Department of Ecology. 2012. Assessing the safety of chemical alternatives. [cited 2012 August 27]. Available from: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/hwtr/chemalternatives
- [WHO] World Health Organization. 1997. Chromium, nickel and welding. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 49:677 p.
- [WHO] World Health Organization. 1999. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 71:1586 p.
- [WHO] World Health Organization. 2008. 1,3-Butadiene, Ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 97:510 p.
- 2009. Hybrid framework for managing uncertainty in life cycle inventories. J Ind Ecol 13:928–944. , ,
- 2008. Assessment of toxicity potential of metallic elements in discarded electronics: A case study of mobile phones in China. J Environ Sci 20:1403–1408. , , , ,
- 1999. Quantities of bisphenol A leached from plastic waste samples. Chemosphere 38:2569–2576. ,
- 2003. The development of Taiwan's Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI). In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing; 2003 Dec. 8-11; Tokyo, Japan: IEEE. p 632–635. ,
- 2009. Calculation of a Toxic Potential Indicator via Chinese-language material safety data sheets. J Ind Ecol 13:455–466. ,