SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Allard P, Fairbrother A, Hope BK, Hull RN, Johnson MS, Kapustka L, Mann G, McDonald B, Sample BE. 2010. Recommendations for the development and application of wildlife toxicity reference values. Integr Environ Assess Manag 6:2837.
  • Amaral MJ, Bicho RC, Carretero MA, Sanchez-Hernandez JC, Faustino AMR, Soares AMVM, Mann RM. 2012. The use of a lacertid lizard as a model for reptile ecotoxicology studies: Part 2—Biomarkers of exposure and toxicity among pesticide exposed lizards. Chemosphere 87:765774.
  • Anderson RH, Farrar DB, Zodrow JM. 2012. Terrestrial metals bioavailability: A comprehensive review and literature-derived decision rule for ecological risk assessment. Human Ecol Risk Assess 6:14881513.
  • Awkerman J, Raimondo S, Barron MG. 2008. Development of species sensitivity distributions for wildlife using interspecies toxicity correlation models. Environ Sci Technol 42:34473452.
  • Awkerman JA, Raimondo S, Barron MG. 2009. Estimation of wildlife hazard levels using interspecies correlation models and standard laboratory rodent toxicity data. J Toxicol Environ Health A 72:16041609.
  • Basu N, Scheuhammer AM, Bursian SJ, Elliott J, Rouvinen-Watt K, Chan HM. 2007. Mink as a sentinel species in environmental health. Environ Res 103:130144.
  • Bazar MA, Quinn MJ, Mozzachio K, Johnson MS. 2008. Toxicological responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to subchronic soil exposures of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:13931398.
  • Bazar MA, Quinn MJ Jr, Mozzachio K, Bleiler JA, Archer CR, Phillips CT, Johnson MS. 2009. Toxicological responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to soil exposures of copper. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57:116122.
  • Bazar MA, Quinn MJ Jr, Mozzachio K, Bleiler JA, Archer CR, Phillips CT, Johnson MS. 2010. Toxicological responses of red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) exposed to aged and amended soils containing lead. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:10401047.
  • Beyer WN, Meador JP. 2011. Environmental contaminants in biota: Interpreting tissue concentrations 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC. 755 p.
  • Bleiler J, Pillard D, Johnson M, Archer C, Bazar M, Anders D, Barclift D, Noles J, Henry P, Harvey K, Hawlkins A. 2009. Demonstration and certification of amphibian ecological risk assessment protocol final report. Technical Report No. TR-2318-ENV. Port Hueneme (CA): Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center.
  • Buekers J, Steen RE, Smolders E. 2009. Lead toxicity to wildlife: derivation of a critical blood concentration for wildlife monitoring based on literature data. Sci Total Environ 407:34313438.
  • [CCME] Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. 1996. A framework for ecological risk assessment at contaminated sites: General guidance. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: CCME. PN 1196.
  • [CCME] Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. 1997. A framework for ecological risk assessment: Technical appendices. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: CCME. PN 1274.
  • [CCME] Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. 2006. A protocol for the derivation of environmental and human health soil quality guidelines. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: CCME. PN 1333.
  • Chapman PM, Caldwell RS, Chapman PF. 1996. A warning: NOECs are inappropriate for regulatory use. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:7779.
  • Chapman PM, Fairbrother A, Brown D. 1998. A critical evaluation of safety (uncertainty) factors for ecological risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:99108.
  • Cooke JA. 2011. Cadmium in small mammals. In: Beyer WN, Meador JP, editors Environmental contaminants in biota: Interpreting tissue concentrations. 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC. p. 627645.
  • Crane N, Newman MC. 2000. What level of effect is a no observed effect? Environ Toxicol Chem 19:516519.
  • [CSIRO] Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. 2009. The Australian methodology to derive ecological investigation levels in contaminated soils. Australia. CSIRO Land and Water Science Report 43/09.
  • de Solla SR, Martin PA, Fernie KJ, Park BJ, Mayne G. 2006. Effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Atrazine on ginal development of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentine). Environ Toxicol Chem 25:520526.
  • DeForest DK, Schlekat CE, Brix KV, Fairbrother A. 2012. Secondary poisoning risk assessment of terrestrial birds and mammals exposed to nickel. Integr Environ Assess Manag 8:107119.
  • Duke LD, Taggart M. 2000. Uncertainty factors in screening ecological risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:16681680.
  • [ECB] European Chemicals Bureau. 2003. Technical guidance document in support of Commission Directive 93/67/EEC on risk assessment for new notified substances, Commission Regulation (EC) 1488/94 on risk assessment for existing substances and Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market. Ispra (IT): European Commission, Joint Research Centre, European Chemicals Bureau.
  • [ECHA] European Chemicals Agency. 2008. Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Appendix R.7.13-2: Environmental risk assessment for metals and metal compounds. European Chemicals Agency.
  • Fairbrother A, Fix M, O'Hara T, Ribic CA. 1994. Impairment of growth and immune function of avocet chicks from sites with elevated selenium, arsenic, and boron. J Wildl Dis 30:222233.
  • Ferson S, Ginzburg LR, Goldstein RA. 1996. Inferring ecological risk from toxicity bioassays. Water Air Soil Pollut 90:7182.
  • Frederick P, Jayasena N. 2010. Altered pairing behavior and reproductive success in white ibises exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of methylmercury. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 278:18511857.
  • Gill CE, Elliott JE. 2003. Influence of food supply and chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants on breeding success of bald eagles. Ecotoxicology 12:95111.
  • Grant A. 1998. Population consequences of chronic toxicity: Incorporating density dependence into the analysis of life table response experiments. Ecol Modell 105:325335.
  • Greenberg MS, Schoeters I, Wentsel RS, Charters DW, Mitchell IA, Zajdlik B. 2013. Regulatory considerations for the potential development and application of metal clean-up values. Integ Environ Assess Manag Available from: DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1481.
  • Hoogesteijn AL, DeVoogd TJ, Quimby FW, DeCaprio T, Kollias GV. 2005. Reproductive impairment in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Environ Toxicol Chem 24:219223.
  • Hope BK, Wickwire WT, Johnson MS. 2011. The need for increased acceptance and use of spatially explicit wildlife exposure models. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7:156157.
  • James SM, Little EE, Semlitsch RD. 2004a. Effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on the hibernation success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 46:518527.
  • James SM, Little EE, Semlitsch RD. 2004b. The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus). Environ Pollut 132:523532.
  • Johnson MS, Franke LS, Lee RB, Holladay SD. 1999. Bioaccumulation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and polychlorinated biphenyls through two routes of exposure in a terrestrial amphibian: Is the dermal route significant? Environ Toxicol Chem 18:873878.
  • Johnson MS, Paulus HI, Salice CJ, Checkai RT, Simini M. 2004. Toxicologic and histopathologic response of the terrestrial salamander Plethodon cinereus to soil exposures of 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 47:496501.
  • Johnson MS, Michie MW, Bazar MA, Salice CJ, Gogal RM Jr. 2005. Responses of oral 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure to the common pigeon (Columba livia): A phylogenic and methodological comparison. Int J Toxicol 24:221229.
  • Johnson MS, Suski J, Bazar MA. 2007. Toxicological responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to subchronic soil exposures of 2,4-dinitrotoluene. Environ Pollut 147:604608.
  • Johnson MS, Theodore Wickwire W, Quinn MJ Jr, Ziolkowski DJ Jr, Burmistrov D, Menzie CA, Geraghty C, Minnich M, Parsons PJ. 2007. Are songbirds at risk from lead at small arms ranges? An application of the spatially explicit exposure model. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:22152225.
  • Jones DE, Holladay SD. 2006. Excretion of three heavy metals in the shed skin of exposed corn snakes (Elaphe guttata). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 64:221225.
  • Kapustka L. 2008. Limitations of the current practices used to perform ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 4:290298.
  • Keenan KP, Ballam GC, Dixit R, Soper KA, Laroque P, Mattson BA, Adams SP, Coleman JB. 1997. The effects of diet, overfeeding and moderate dietary restriction on Sprague-Dawley rat survival, disease, and toxicology. J Nutr 127:85158565.
  • Landis WG, Chapman PM. 2011. Well past time to stop using NOELs and LOELs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7:viviii.
  • Ma W-C. 2011. Lead in wildlife tissues. In: Beyer WN, Meador JP, editors Environmental contaminants in biota: Interpreting tissue concentrations. 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC. p 595609.
  • Marteinson SC, Bird DM, Shutt JL, Letcher RJ, Ritchie IJ, Fernie KJ. 2010. Multi-generational effects of polybrominated diphenylethers exposure: Embryonic exposure of male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to DE-71 alters reproductive success and behaviors. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:17401747.
  • Mayfield DB, Fairbrother A. 2013. Efforts to standardize wildlife toxicity values remain unrealized. Integr Environ Assess Manag 9:114123.
  • McCarty LS, Landrum PF, Luoma SN, Meador JP, Merten AA, Shephard BK, van Wezel AP. 2011. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7:727.
  • McDonald BG, Wilcockson JB. 2003. Improving the use of toxicity reference values in wildlife food chain modeling and ecological risk assessment. Human Ecol Risk Assess 9:15851594.
  • McFarland CA, Quinn MJ Jr, Bazar MA, Remick AK, Talent LG, Johnson MS. 2008. Toxicity of oral exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Environ Toxicol Chem 27:11021111.
  • McFarland CA, Quinn MJ Jr, Bazar MA, Talent LG, Johnson MS. 2009. Toxic effects of oral hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Environ Toxicol Chem 28:10431050.
  • McFarland CA, Quinn MJ Jr, Boyce J, LaFiandra EM, Bazar MA, Talent LG, Johnson MS. 2011. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Environ Pollut 159:466473.
  • McLaughlin MJ, Smolders E. 2001. Background zinc concentrations in soil affect the zinc sensitivity of soil microbial processes—A rationale for a metalloregion approach to risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:26392643.
  • Mebane CA, Arthaud DL. 2010. Extrapolating growth reductions in fish to changes in population extinction risks: Copper and Chinook salmon. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 16:10261065.
  • Merrington G, Schoeters I. 2011. Soil quality standards for trace elements: Derivation, implementation, and interpretation. Boca Raton (FL): CRC. 159 p.
  • Newman MC, Ownby DR, Mezin LAC, Powell DC, Christensen TRL, Lerberg SB, Anderson BA. 2000. Applying species-sensitivity distributions in ecological risk assessment: Assumptions of distribution type and sufficient numbers of species. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:508515.
  • Posthuma L, Suter GW II, Traas TP. 2001. Species sensitivity distributions in ecotoxicology. Boca Raton (FL): CRC. p 616.
  • Raimondo S, Mineau P, Barron MG. 2007. Estimation of chemical toxicity to wildlife species using interspecies correlation models. Environ Sci Technol 41:58885894.
  • Rattner BA, Horak KE, Lazarus RS, Eisenreich KM, Meteyer CU, Volker SF, Campton CM, Eisemann JD, Johnston JJ. 2012. Assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio). Ecotoxicology 21:832846.
  • Romijn CAFM, Luttik R, Canton JH. 1991. Presentation of a general algorithm to include effect assessment on secondary poisoning in the derivation of environmental quality criteria. Part 2. Terrestrial food chains. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 27:107127.
  • Sample BE, Hansen JA, Dailey A, Duncan B. 2011. Assessment of risks to ground-feeding songbirds from lead in the Coeur d'Alene Basin, Idaho USA. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7:596611.
  • Sample BE, Opresko DM, Suter GW II. 1996. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision. Oak Ridge (TN): Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ES/ER/TM-86/R3.
  • Sample BE, Schlekat C, Spurgeon DJ, Menzi C, Rauscher J, Adams W. 2013. Recommendations to improved wildlife exposure estimation for development of soil screening and cleanup values. Integr Environ Assess Manag Available from: DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1482.
  • Schalk G, Forbes MR, Weatherhead PJ. 2002. Developmental plasticity and growth rates of green for (Rana clamitans) embryos and tadpoles in relation to a leech (Macrobdella decora) predator. Copeia 2:445449.
  • Sebens KP. 1987. The ecology of indeterminate growth in animals. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18:371407.
  • Smith JN, Pan X, Gentles A, Smith EE, Cox SB, Cobb GP. 2006. Reproductive effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) during a controlled exposure study. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:446451.
  • Smolders E, Oorts K, Van Sprang P, Schoeters I, Janssen CJ, McGrath SP, McLaughlin MJ. 2009. Toxicity of trace metals in soil as affected by soil type and aging after contamination: Using calibrated bioavailability models to set ecological soil standards. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:16331642.
  • Sparling DW, Linder G, Bishop CA, Krest SK. 2010. Ecotoxicology of amphibians and reptiles. 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC. 916 p.
  • Talent LG. 2009. Effect of temperature on toxicity of a natural pyrethrin pesticide to green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Environ Toxicol Chem 24:31133116.
  • Talent LG, Dumont JN, Bantle JA, Janz DM, Talent SG. 2002. Evaluation of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentals) and eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) as laboratory reptile models for toxicological investigations. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:899905.
  • Tarlow EM, Blumstein DT. 2007. Evaluating methods to quantify anthropogenic stressors on wild animals. Appl Anim Behav Sci 102:429451.
  • [USACHPPM] US Army Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Medicine. 2000. Standard practice for wildlife toxicity reference values. Technical Guide No. 254.
  • [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 1997. Ecological risk assessment guidance for Superfund: Process for designing and conducting ecological risk assessments. Washington (DC): USEPA. EPA/540/R97/006.
  • [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. Peer review workshop report on ecological soil screening-level (Eco-SSL) guidance document. Washington (DC): USEPA. Contract No. 68-C-99-238.
  • [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2003. Guidance for developing ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs). Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) £3: Wildlife toxicity reference value literature search and retrieval. Washington (DC): USEPA. OSWER Directive 92857-55.
  • [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. Guidance for developing ecological soil screening levels. Washington (DC): USEPA. OSWER Directive 9285.7-55.
  • [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Framework for metals risk assessment. Washington (DC): USEPA. EPA/120/R-07/0001.
  • [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2012a. Ecological effects test guidelines. OCSPP 850.2300: Avian reproduction test. Washington (DC): USEPA. EPA/712/C/023.
  • [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2012b. Benchmark Dose Technical Guidance. Washington (DC): USEPA. EPA/100/R-12/001.
  • Van de Plassche EJ. 1994. Towards integrated environmental quality objectives for several compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning. Bilthoven, Netherlands: National Institute of Public Health and Environment Protection Report No. 679101012 262 p.
  • Wickwire T, Johnson MS, Hope BK, Greenberg MS. 2011. Spatially explicit ecological exposure models: A rationale and path toward their increased acceptance and use. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7:158168.
  • Zhao FJ, McGrath SP, Merrington G. 2007. Estimates of ambient background concentrations of trace metals in soils for risk assessment. Environ Pollut 148:221229.