SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • Pesticides;
  • Half-life;
  • Leaching;
  • Volatilization;
  • Fugacity modeling

Abstract

A comparison of environmental risks of pesticides between tropical and nontropical regions has been performed, using data from the literature and modeling outputs based on the physicochemical properties of the compounds. With a few exceptions, the level of risk of exposure for most pesticides in tropical agriculture is similar to that in other climatic regions of the world. Generally, dissipation of pesticides increases under the warm and wet conditions of the tropics, with most of the dissipation occurring through hydrolysis in water and biological degradation in water and soil. High temperatures in the tropics also foster volatilization rates, whereas high precipitation and poor soils tend to increase losses into runoff and, for certain chemicals, affects their leaching behavior. The environmental risk is determined by a balance of soil types, soil organic carbon, pH, and the rates of degradation in the various environmental compartments. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2011;7:577–586. © 2011 SETAC