Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management

Cover image for Vol. 10 Issue 2

April 2014

Volume 10, Issue 2

Pages 151–320

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Critical Review
    4. Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments
    5. Health & Ecological Risk Assessment
    6. Case Studies
    7. Environmental Policy & Regulation
    8. Learned Discourses
    9. Book Reviews
    1. The need for truly integrated environmental assessments (page 151)

      Peter M Chapman and Bill Maher

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1532

  2. Critical Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Critical Review
    4. Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments
    5. Health & Ecological Risk Assessment
    6. Case Studies
    7. Environmental Policy & Regulation
    8. Learned Discourses
    9. Book Reviews
    1. You have free access to this content
      Environmental management practices and engineering science: A review and typology for future research (pages 153–162)

      Konstantinos I Evangelinos, Stuart Allan, Keith Jones and Ioannis E Nikolaou

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1504

  3. Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Critical Review
    4. Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments
    5. Health & Ecological Risk Assessment
    6. Case Studies
    7. Environmental Policy & Regulation
    8. Learned Discourses
    9. Book Reviews
    1. You have free access to this content
      Passive sampling in contaminated sediment assessment: Building consensus to improve decision making (pages 163–166)

      Thomas F Parkerton and Keith A Maruya

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1488

      Key Points

      • Forty-five experts from around the world reached consensus on the utility and application of passive sampling methods that target Cfree for improved management of contaminated sediments.
      • The objectives and highlights of subsequent papers included in this series that support this conclusion are briefly summarized.
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: State of the science for organic contaminants (pages 167–178)

      Michael J Lydy, Peter F Landrum, Amy MP Oen, Mayumi Allinson, Foppe Smedes, Amanda D Harwood, Huizhen Li, Keith A Maruya and Jingfu Liu

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1503

      Key Points

      • This manuscript reviews 90 recent citations on passive sampling methods (PSMs) that target the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of a contaminant in sediment.
      • PSMs employing various polymers and configurations have been used in lab and field applications to quantify Cfree, a better proxy for bioaccumulation and toxicity than bulk sediment (“total”) concentration.
      • Standardization and guidance on proper selection and application of PSMs is needed to expand their utility in assessment and management of contaminated sediments.
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: State of the science for metals (pages 179–196)

      Willie JGM Peijnenburg, Peter R Teasdale, Danny Reible, Julie Mondon, William W Bennett and Peter GC Campbell

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1502

      Key Points

      • Passive sampling methods (PSMs) offer the potential for cost-efficient and accurate in situ characterization of the dissolved concentrations for inorganic sediment contaminants.
      • PSMs are useful for evaluating the geochemical behavior of metals in surficial sediments, including determination of fluxes across the sediment-water interface, and post-depositional changes in metal speciation.
      • Few studies have tried to link PSM responses in sediments to metal uptake and toxicity responses in benthic organisms. There is a clear need for further studies.
      • Future PSMs could be designed to mimic saturable kinetics, which would fill the gap between the kinetic and the equilibrium regime samplers currently used, and may improve prediction of metals accumulation by benthic organisms.
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations (pages 197–209)

      Philipp Mayer, Thomas F Parkerton, Rachel G Adams, John G Cargill, Jay Gan, Todd Gouin, Philip M Gschwend, Steven B Hawthorne, Paul Helm, Gesine Witt, Jing You and Beate I Escher

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1508

      Key Points

      • Passive sampling methods (PSMs) can quantify the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of a hydrophobic organic contaminant in sediment.
      • Cfree is directly related to chemical activity, which drives diffusive uptake into benthic organisms and exchange across the sediment-water interface.
      • Cfree and chemical activity offer a well-defined basis for the mechanistic understanding of fate and transport processes in sediments and for predicting adverse effects to benthic organisms.
      • Recent developments in PSMs are advancing practical application to improve risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments.
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Practical guidance for selection, calibration, and implementation (pages 210–223)

      Upal Ghosh, Susan Kane Driscoll, Robert M Burgess, Michiel TO Jonker, Danny Reible, Frank Gobas, Yongju Choi, Sabine E Apitz, Keith A Maruya, William R Gala, Munro Mortimer and Chris Beegan

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1507

      Key Points

      • Specific guidance is provided for the use of passive sampling methods for measuring freely dissolved concentrations in contaminated sediment site assessments.
      • Guidelines are provided for proper calibration and validation of passive sampling methods including use of provisional values for polymer-water partition coefficients.
      • Determination of equilibrium status and confirmation of non-depletive measurement conditions are defined.
      • Further development is needed for the use of non-equilibrium passive sampling methods in the field and the validation of performance reference compound use in static sediment environments.
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Risk assessment and management (pages 224–236)

      Marc S Greenberg, Peter M Chapman, Ian J Allan, Kim A Anderson, Sabine E Apitz, Chris Beegan, Todd S Bridges, Steve S Brown, John G Cargill IV, Megan C McCulloch, Charles A Menzie, James P Shine and Thomas F Parkerton

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1511

      Key Points

      • The freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of a hydrophobic organic contaminant in sediment is a better predictor of bioavailability than the total concentration in bulk sediment.
      • Passive sampling methods (PSMs) that target Cfree reduce uncertainty in site investigations by characterizing spatial and temporal contaminant trends, source contributions, calibrating models, and improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks.
      • PSMs can help delineate sediment management zones, assess remedy effectiveness, and evaluate risk reduction following management action.
      • Cfree can be used to better inform risk management decision making.
  4. Health & Ecological Risk Assessment

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Critical Review
    4. Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments
    5. Health & Ecological Risk Assessment
    6. Case Studies
    7. Environmental Policy & Regulation
    8. Learned Discourses
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia (pages 237–246)

      Juliet Elizabeth Natasha Hodges, Raghu Vamshi, Christopher Holmes, Matthew Rowson, Taqmina Miah and Oliver Richard Price

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1476

      Key Points

      • We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase consumer products (home and personal care [HPC] products) in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform.
      • The implications of using highly localized spatial data on population and GDP distributions to generate inter- and intra-country subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored.
      • It was demonstrated that for low-value products (<500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the maximum deviation from baseline (emission distributed via population) is less than a factor of three and is unlikely to result in significant differences in environmental chemical risk assessments.
      • For product types (>500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude.
    2. Focal species of birds in European crops for higher tier pesticide risk assessment (pages 247–259)

      Christian Dietzen, Peter J Edwards, Christian Wolf, Jan-Dieter Ludwigs and Robert Luttik

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1487

      Key Points

      • Focal species of birds have been defined for most major arable and tree crops in Europe applying EFSA guidelines
      • Identified focal bird species are recommended for pesticide risk assessment and further evaluation of effects and exposure
      • In arable crops, birds are generally represented by small omnivorous (lark or bunting) and small insectivorous (wagtail) species, while herbivorous (pigeon) or granivorous (finch) exposure scenarios are less relevant
      • In tree crops, (orchards, vineyards) insectivorous ground-foraging (blackbird) and foliage-foraging insectivores (warbler or tit), omnivores (sparrow, bunting, finch) and occasionally granivorous finches were identified as focal species
    3. The use of sediment toxicity identification evaluation methods to evaluate clean up targets in an urban estuary (pages 260–268)

      Darrin J Greenstein, Steven M Bay, Diana L Young, Stanford Asato, Keith A Maruya and Wenjian Lao

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1512

      Key Points

      • Sediment quality guidelines are often used to inform management decisions regarding contaminated sediments, such as determining chemicals of concern and clean up target concentrations.
      • Different conclusions were obtained in an urban estuary for stressor identifications using sediment quality guidelines versus site specific assessments with toxicity identification evaluations, bioavailable chemical measurements, and spiked sediment exposures.
      • Sediment quality guideline based clean up target concentrations were often multiple orders of magnitude below the concentrations found to be toxic by the spiked sediment exposures.
  5. Case Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Critical Review
    4. Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments
    5. Health & Ecological Risk Assessment
    6. Case Studies
    7. Environmental Policy & Regulation
    8. Learned Discourses
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Regional risk assessment of the Puyallup River Watershed and the evaluation of low impact development in meeting management goals (pages 269–278)

      Eleanor E Hines and Wayne G Landis

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1509

      Key Points

      • The Bayesian network relative risk model (BN-RRM) estimated risk of prespawn mortality to Coho salmon in the Puyallup River watershed in a spatially explicit manner.
      • The pattern of risk was that a greater risk existed as the watershed became more urban as it transitions through National Park, agriculture, suburbs, manufacturing and eventually to the Port of Tacoma.
      • The effect of low impact development (LID) was successfully introduced into the model to examine the changes in risk. To successfully alter the pattern of risk, a substantial amount of area would have to be transferred to LID, especially in the high-risk regions of the watershed.
      • The adaptability of the BN-RRM allows for both an evaluation of risk and an examination of how management alternatives alter the risk. The fundamental approach should be applicable to other sites in Puget Sound and to other scenarios.
    2. Parsing pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Forensic chemistry, receptor models, and source control policy (pages 279–285)

      Kirk T O'Reilly, Jaana Pietari and Paul D Boehm

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1506

      Key Points

      • Receptor models can be useful tools for evaluating contaminant sources, but careful consideration of each model's underlying assumption is critical. These include that all potential sources have been identified and their chemical profiles are known and stable.
      • Given the variability within and similarity among pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) source types, receptor models may not be able to accurately estimate their individual contributions.
      • When used to support source control policy decisions, the inherent uncertainties in the results of receptor models must be described in a way that are understandable to nontechnical policy makers.
      • In a case study, a multiple-lines-of-evidence evaluation did not support the receptor model based claim that parking-lot sealers are a significant source of PAHs in urban sediments.
    3. Risk mitigation measures for diffuse pesticide entry into aquatic ecosystems: Proposal of a guide to identify appropriate measures on a catchment scale (pages 286–298)

      Renja Bereswill, Martin Streloke and Ralf Schulz

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1517

      Key Points

      • A method for identifying measures to reduce pesticide entries into aquatic ecosystems via spray drift and runoff is presented: Based on a survey of exposure-relevant landscape parameters, a set of risk mitigation measures focusing on the specific situation of pollution of a water body catchment can be identified.
      • An overview of the effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of risk mitigation measures included in the guide (in total 18) is presented.
      • The present guide presents a step toward the practical implementation of risk mitigation measures for reducing pesticide entry in aquatic ecosystems.
  6. Environmental Policy & Regulation

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Critical Review
    4. Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments
    5. Health & Ecological Risk Assessment
    6. Case Studies
    7. Environmental Policy & Regulation
    8. Learned Discourses
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Pre-anthropocene mercury residues in North American freshwater fish (pages 299–308)

      Bruce K Hope and Jeff Louch

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1500

      Key Points

      • Mercury has been entering the environment from natural sources for millennia but regulatory limits for mercury in fish have declined steadily since the 1960s.
      • Because mercury is naturally occurring, is there a level of mercury in fish below which it is not possible to descend, regardless of regulatory imperatives?
      • Modeling suggests that mercury levels in fish preferred by humans could have exceeded current regulatory limits in prehistoric times due solely to naturally occurring mercury.
      • Attempts to manage mercury to below natural levels may thus be ineffectual, frustrating, and costly for both the regulated community and regulators, which suggests the need for watershed-specific regulatory flexibility when addressing mercury in fish.
  7. Learned Discourses

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Critical Review
    4. Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments
    5. Health & Ecological Risk Assessment
    6. Case Studies
    7. Environmental Policy & Regulation
    8. Learned Discourses
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Timely scientific opinions (page 309)

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1531

    2. Developments affecting northern lakes: A littoral perspective (pages 309–310)

      Kelly Hille, Katherine Harris and Zsolt Kovats

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1516

    3. Using terrestrial mammalian carnivores for global contaminant monitoring (pages 312–314)

      Esmarie Jooste, Clayton K Nielsen and Da Chen

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1514

  8. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Critical Review
    4. Special Series: Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments
    5. Health & Ecological Risk Assessment
    6. Case Studies
    7. Environmental Policy & Regulation
    8. Learned Discourses
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Book Review (pages 316–320)

      Glenn Suter

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1519

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