SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Ellison PT, Panter-Brick C, Lipson SR, O'Rourke MT. The ecological context of human ovarian function. Hum Repro 1993;8: 224868.
  • 2
    Kramer MM, Wells CL. Does physical activity reduce risk of estrogen-dependent cancer in women? Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28: 32234.
  • 3
    Shephard RJ. Physical activity and cancer. Int J Sports Med 1990;11: 41320.
  • 4
    Zheng W, Shu XO, McLaughlin JK, Chow WH, Gao YT, Blot WJ. Occupational physical activity and the incidence of cancer of the breast, corpus uteri and ovary in Shanghai. Cancer 1993;71: 36204.
  • 5
    Frisch RE, Wyshak G, Albright NL, Albright TE, Schiff I, Jones KP, Witschi J, Shiang E, Koff E, Marguglio M. Lower prevalence of breast cancer and cancers of the reproductive system among former college athletes compared with non-athletes. Br J Cancer 1985;52: 88591.
  • 6
    Bain C, Purdie D, Green A, Siskind V, Harvey P, Ambrosini G. Exercise may protect against ovarian cancer [Abstract]. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143: S72.
  • 7
    Cottreau CM, Ness RB, Kriska AM. Physical activity and reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96: 60914.
  • 8
    Tavani A, Gallus S, La Vecchia C, Dal Maso L, Negri E, Pelucchi C, Montella M, Conti E, Carbone A, Franceschi S. Physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer: an Italian case-control study. Int J Cancer 2001;91: 40711.
  • 9
    Dosemeci M, Hayes RB, Vetter R, Hoover RN, Tucker M, Engin K, Unsal M, Blair A. Occupational physical activity, socioeconomic status and risk of 15 cancer sites in Turkey. Cancer Causes Control 1993;4: 31321.
  • 10
    Pukkala E, Poskiparta M, Apter D, Vihko V. Life-long physical activity and cancer risk among Finnish female teachers. Eur J Cancer Prev 1993;2: 36976.
  • 11
    Mink PJ, Folsom AR, Seller TA, Kushi LH. Physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, and other risk factors for ovarian cancer: a follow-up study of older women. Epidemiology 1996;7: 3845.
  • 12
    Bertone ER, Willett WC, Rosner B, Hunter DJ, Fuchs CS, Speizer FE, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE. A prospective study of recreational physical activity and ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93: 9428.
  • 13
    Longnecker MP, Newcomb PA, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Willett WC. Intake of carrots, spinach, and supplements containing vitamin A in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997;6: 88792.
  • 14
    Titus-Ernstoff L, Egan KM, Newcomb PA, Baron JA, Stampfer M, Greenberg ER, Cole BF, Ding J, Willett W, Trichopoulos D. Exposure to breast milk in infancy and adult breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90: 9214.
  • 15
    Cooper GS, Sandler DP, Bohlig M. Active and passive smoking and the occurrence of natural menopause. Epidemiology 1999;10: 7713.
  • 16
    Baron JA, Newcomb PA, Longnecker MP, Mittendorf R, Storer BE, Clapp RW, Bogdan G, Yuen J. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996;5: 399403.
  • 17
    Kato I, Toniolo P, Akhmedkhanov A, Koenig KL, Shore R, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A. Prospective study of factors influencing the onset of natural menopause. J Clin Epidemiol 1998;51: 12716.
  • 18
    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS, Jacob DR Jr, Montoye HJ, Sallis JF, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993;25: 7180.
  • 19
    Chug-Ahuja JK, Holden JM, Forman MR, Mangels AR, Beecher GR, Lanza E. The development and application of a carotenoid database for fruits, vegetables, and selected multicomponent foods. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93: 31823.
  • 20
    Bertone ER, Hankinson SE, Newcomb PA, Rosner B, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Egan KM. A population-based case-control study of carotenoid and vitamin A intake and ovarian cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001;12: 8390.
  • 21
    Fathalla MF. Incessant ovulation: a factor in ovarian neoplasia? (letter). Lancet 1971;ii: 163.
  • 22
    Rich-Edwards J, Garland M, Hunter DJ, Hertzmark E, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Wand H, Manson JE. Physical activity, body mass index, and ovulatory disorder infertility Epidemiology 2002;13: 18490.
  • 23
    Broocks A, Pirke KM, Schweiger U, Tuschl RJ, Laessle RG, Strowitzki T, Horl E, Horl T, Haas W, Jeschke D. Cyclic ovarian function in recreational athletes. J Appl Physiol 1990;68: 20836.
  • 24
    Cauley JA, Gutal JP, Kuller LH, LeDonne D, Powell JG. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129: 112031.
  • 25
    Cramer DW, Welch WR. 1983. Determinants of ovarian cancer risk. II. Inferences regarding pathogenesis. J Nat Cancer Inst 1983;71: 71721.
  • 26
    Keizer HA, Rogol AD. Physical exercise and menstrual cycle alterations. What are the mechanisms? Sports Med 1990;10: 21835.
  • 27
    Risch HA. Hormonal etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer, with a hypothesis concerning the role of androgens and progesterone. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90: 177486.
  • 28
    Shoff SM, Newcomb PA, Trentham-Dietz A, Remington PL, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Willett WC. Early-life physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: effect of body size and weight change. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9: 5915.