The XAGE family of cancer/testis-associated genes: Alignment and expression profile in normal tissues, melanoma lesions and Ewing's sarcoma
Article first published online: 26 MAR 2002
Copyright © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
International Journal of Cancer
Volume 99, Issue 3, pages 361–369, 20 May 2002
How to Cite
Zendman, A. J.W., van Kraats, A. A., Weidle, U. H., Ruiter, D. J. and van Muijen, G. N.P. (2002), The XAGE family of cancer/testis-associated genes: Alignment and expression profile in normal tissues, melanoma lesions and Ewing's sarcoma. Int. J. Cancer, 99: 361–369. doi: 10.1002/ijc.10371
- Issue published online: 25 APR 2002
- Article first published online: 26 MAR 2002
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 JAN 2002
- Manuscript Revised: 14 JAN 2002
- Manuscript Received: 2 NOV 2001
- Dutch Cancer Society. Grant Number: NUKC 98-1782
- cancer/testis antigen;
- Ewing's sarcoma;
The existence of XAGE genes was first reported after database homology searches for PAGE-like sequences identified 3 XAGE EST clusters. One of these clusters, XAGE-1, has in later studies been identified as a cancer/testis-associated gene. Here, we report the expression profiles of all 3 reported XAGE genes, as well as several splice variants of XAGE-1, in normal human tissues, Ewing's sarcoma and melanocytic tumors. We also provide the genetic structure of the corresponding genes. Moreover, by searching the databases for XAGE homologues, we identified 3 additional GAGE-like genes. RT-PCR studies showed frequent expression in melanoma metastases and Ewing's sarcoma for 2 XAGE-1-derived transcripts. XAGE-2 was expressed at lower frequency in these tissues, while XAGE-3 was seen only in normal placenta. Due to a frameshift, the largest XAGE-1 putative protein is far less homologous to GAGE-like proteins than the other XAGEs. Interestingly, all GAGE-like genes contain a large secondary open reading frame, coding for putative proteins homologues to the XAGE-1 primary protein. The XAGE family of cancer/testis-associated genes is located on chromosome Xp11.21-Xp11.22. The data outline a superfamily of GAGE-like cancer/testis antigens, consisting of at least 19 genes. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.