• 1
    Munoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S, Tafur L, Izarzugaza I, Gili M, Viladiu P, Navarro C, Martos C, Ascunce N. The causal link between human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer: a population-based case-control study in Colombia and Spain. Int J Cancer 1992;52: 7439.
  • 2
    Bosch FX, Munoz N, de Sanjose S, Navarro C, Moreo P, Ascunce N, Gonzalez LC, Tafur L, Gili M, Larranaga I. Human papillomavirus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III/carcinoma in situ: a case control study in Spain and Colombia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1993;2: 41522.
  • 3
    Schiffman MH, Bauer HM, Hoover RN, Glass AG, Cadell DM, Rush BB, Scott DR, Sherman ME, Kurman RJ, Wacholder S. Epidemiologic evidence showing that human papillomavirus infection causes most cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85: 95864.
  • 4
    Eluf-Neto J, Booth M, Munoz N, Bosch FX, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer in Brazil. Br J Cancer 1994;69: 1149.
  • 5
    Peng H, Liu S, Mann V, Rohan T, Rawls W. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 33, herpes simplex virus type 2 and other risk factors for cervical cancer in Sichuan Province, China. Int J Cancer 1991;47: 7116.
  • 6
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) working group. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Human papillomaviruses. Vol. 64. Lyon: IARC, 1995.
  • 7
    Mayor S. Human papillomavirus classified as carcinogenic. BMJ 1996;313: 70.
  • 8
    Bosch FX, Manos MM, Munoz N, Sherman M, Jansen AM, Peto J, Schiffman MH, Moreno V, Kurman R, Shah KV. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. International biological study on cervical cancer (IBSCC) Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87: 796802.
  • 9
    Wright DK, Manos MM. Sample preparation from paraffin-embedded tissues. In: InnisMA, WhiteT, SninskyJJ, eds. Polymerase chain reaction protocols: a guide to methods and application. San Diego: Academic Press, 1990. 1538.
  • 10
    Kwok S, Higuchi R. Avoiding false positives with PCR. Nature 1989;339: 2378.
  • 11
    Kwok S. Procedures to minimize PCR-related product carry-over. In: InnisMA, WhiteT, SninskyJJ, eds. Polymerase chain reaction protocols. A guide to methods and applications. San Diego, Academic Press, 1990: 142–5.
  • 12
    Resnick RM, Cornelissen MT, Wright DK, Eichinger GH, Fox HS, ter Schegget J, Manos MM. Detection and typing of human papillomavirus in archival cervical cancer specimens by DNA amplification with consensus primers. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990;82: 147784.
  • 13
    Baay MF, Quint WGV, Koudstaal J, Hollema H, Duk JM, Burger MP, Stolz E, Herbrink P. Comprehensive study of several general and type-specific primer pairs for detection of human papillomavirus DNA by PCR in paraffin-embedded cervical carcinomas. J Clin Microbiol 1996: 7457.
  • 14
    Van den Brule AJ, Snijders PJ, Gordijn RL, Bleker OP, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. General primer-mediated polymerase chain reaction permits the detection of sequenced and still unsequenced human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical scrapes and carcinomas. Int J Cancer 1990;45: 6449.
  • 15
    Chan PK, Li WH, Chan MY, Ma WL, Cheung JL, Cheng AF. High prevalence of human papillomavirus type 58 in Chinese women with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. J Med Virol 1999;59: 2328.
  • 16
    Manos MM, Ting Y, Wright DK, Lewis AJ, Broker TR, Wolinsky SM. Use of polymerase chain reaction amplification for the detection of genital human papillomaviruses. Cancer Cells 1989;7: 20914.
  • 17
    zur Hausen H. Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of anogenital cancer. Virology 1991;184: 913.
  • 18
    Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV, Snijders PJ, Peto J, Meijer CJ, Munoz N. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 1999;189: 129.
  • 19
    Lo KW, Cheung TH, Chung TK, Wang VW, Poon JS, Lam P, Wong YF. Clinical and prognostic significance of human papillomavirus in a Chinese population of cervical cancers. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2001;51: 2027.
  • 20
    Karlsen F, Kalantari M, Jenkins A, Pettersen E, Kristensen G, Holm R, Johannsson B, Hagmar B. Use of multiple PCR primer sets for optimal detection of human papillomavirus. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34: 2095100.
  • 21
    Liaw KL, Hsing AW, Chen CJ, Schiffman MH, Zhang TY, Hsieh CY, Greer CE, You SL, Huang TW, Wu TC. Human papillomavirus and cervical neoplasia: a case-control study in Taiwan. Int J Cancer 1995;62: 56571.
  • 22
    Huang S, Afonina I, Miller BA, Beckmann AM. Human papillomavirus types 52 and 58 are prevalent in cervical cancers from Chinese women. Int J Cancer 1997;70: 40811.
  • 23
    Bernard HU, Chan SY, Manos MM, Ong CK, Villa LL, Delius H, Peyton CL, Bauer HM, Wheeler CM. Identification and assessment of known and novel human papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction amplification, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, nucleotide sequence, and phylogenetic algorithms. J Infect Dis 1994;170: 107785.
  • 24
    Munoz N, Bosch X, Chichareon S, Eluf-Neto J, Ngelangel C, Caceres E, Rolon PA, Bayo S, Chaoukin N, Shah KV, Walboomers JM, Meijer CJ. A multinational case-control study on the risk of cervical cancer linked to 25 HPV types: which are the high-risk types? 18th HPV Conference, Barcelona 23–-28 July 2000. p 125.
  • 25
    Walker J, Bloss JD, Liao SY, Berman M, Bergen S, Wilczynski SP. Human papillomavirus genotype as a prognostic indicator in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol 1989;74: 7815.
  • 26
    Nakagawa S, Yoshikawa H, Onda T, Kawana T, Iwamoto A, Taketani Y. Type of human papillomavirus is related to clinical features of cervical carcinoma. Cancer 1996;78: 193541.
  • 27
    Im SS, Monk BJ, Villarrealk LP. Prevention of cervical cancer with vaccines. Curr Oncol Rep 2001;3: 3228.
  • 28
    Boursnell ME, Rutherford E, Hickling JK, Rollinson EA, Munro AJ, Kolley N, McLean CS, Borysiewicz LK, Vousden K, Inglis SC. Construction and characterization of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing human papillomavirus proteins for immunotherapy of cervical cancer. Vaccine 1996;14: 148594.
  • 29
    Gissmann L, Osen W, Muller M, Jochmus I. Therapeutic vaccines for human papillomavirus. Intervirology 2001;44: 16775.