Cigarette smoking, use of other tobacco products and stomach cancer mortality in US adults: The Cancer Prevention Study II



Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in many studies but there are limited data on this relationship in women and on risk associated with use of tobacco products other than cigarettes. We examined stomach cancer death rates in relation to cigarette smoking in women and use of cigarette, cigar, pipe, or smokeless tobacco in men in a nationwide prospective mortality study in the United States (US). Cohort follow-up from 1982–96 identified 996 and 509 stomach cancer deaths among 467,788 men and 588,053 women, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using non-users of tobacco as the referent group. Multivariate-adjusted RRs were the highest for men who currently smoked cigars (RR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.49–3.51) or cigarettes (RR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.75–2.67) and both increased with smoking duration. Women who currently (RR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.18–1.88) or formerly (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.08–1.71) smoked cigarettes were at significantly increased risk, as were men who formerly smoked cigarettes (RR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.28–1.88), or currently (RR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.40–2.35) or formerly (RR: 1.57, 95% CI = 1.22–2.03) used more than one type of tobacco. Men who reported a history of chronic indigestion or gastroduodenal ulcer had substantially higher mortality rates associated with current cigarette (RR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.05–5.80) or cigar (RR = 8.93, 95% CI = 4.02–19.90) smoking, as did men who were current aspirin users. If causal, the estimated proportion of stomach cancer deaths attributable to tobacco use would be 28% in US men and 14% in women. We conclude that prolonged use of tobacco products is associated with increased stomach cancer mortality in men and women. The accumulated evidence from this and other studies support reconsidering stomach cancer as a tobacco-related cancer. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.