Changes in the length of a polymorphic trinucleotide (CAG) repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, which may lead to altered transactivation of the AR gene, have been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of several forms of endocrine cancer and certain reproductive disorders. Subjects with reproductive disorders that are associated with a relative deficiency of androgen function carry an increased risk for testicular cancer, therefore we have examined the (CAG)n in the AR gene in DNA isolated from peripheral blood cells of 102 patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell neoplasia and compared them with a control group of 110 healthy men with proven fertility. All patients and control subjects underwent comprehensive andrological examination that included reproductive hormone profiles and the analysis of the (CAG)n in the AR gene that was done by means of PCR and DNA sequencing. There was no difference in the distribution of (CAG)n between the subjects and controls, no association of (CAG)n and the tumor type and no association with severity of the disease. We conclude that the high risk of testicular germ cell cancer in the Danish population is not associated with the (CAG)n polymorphism in the AR gene. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.