• 1
    Black PM, Loeffler J. Cancer of the nervous system. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1997. 11.
  • 2
    Forsyth PA, Roa WH. Primary central nervous system tumors in adults. Curr Treat Options Neurol 1999; 1: 377394.
  • 3
    Puumalainen AM, Vapalahti M, Agrawal RS, Kossila M, Laukkanen J, Lehtolainen P, Viita H, Paljarvi L, Vanninen R, Yla-Herttuala S. Beta-galactosidase gene transfer to human malignant glioma in vivo using replication-deficient retroviruses and adenoviruses. Hum Gene Ther 1998; 9: 176974.
  • 4
    Kay MA, Glorioso JC, Naldini L. Viral vectors for gene therapy: the art of turning infectious agents into vehicles of therapeutics. Nat Med 2001; 7: 3340.
  • 5
    Lam PY, Breakefield XO. Hybrid vector designs to control the delivery, fate and expression of transgenes. J Gene Med 2000; 2: 395408.
  • 6
    Gupta N. Current status of viral gene therapy for brain tumors. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000; 9: 71326.
  • 7
    Verma I, Somia N. Gene therapy: promises, problems and prospects. Nature 1997; 389: 23942.
  • 8
    Rainov NG. A phase III clinical evaluation of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and ganciclovir gene therapy as an adjuvant to surgical resection and radiation in adults with previously untreated glioblastoma multiforme. Hum Gene Ther 2000; 11: 2389401.
  • 9
    Trask T, Trask R, Aguilar-Cordova E, Shine H, Wyde P, Goodman J, Hamilton W, Rojas-Martinez A, Chen S, Woo S, Grossman R. Phase I study of adenoviral delivery of the HSV-tk gene and ganciclovir administration in patients with current malignant brain tumors. Mol Ther 2000; 1: 195203.
  • 10
    Sandmair A, Loimas S, Puranen P, Immonen A, Kossila M, Puranen M, Hurskainen H, Tyynela K, Turunen M, Vanninen R, Lehtolainen P, Paljarvi L, et al. Thymidine kinase gene therapy for human malignant glioma, using replication-deficient retroviruses or adenoviruses. Hum Gene Ther 2000; 11: 2197205.
  • 11
    Lam PY, Breakefield XO. Potential of gene therapy for brain tumors. Hum Mol Genet 2001; 10: 77787.
  • 12
    Zhang W. Development and application of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy of cancer. Cancer Gene Ther 1999; 6: 11338.
  • 13
    Benihoud K, Yeh P, Perricaudet M. Adenovirus vectors for gene delivery. Curr Opin Biotechnol 1999; 10: 4407.
  • 14
    Alemany R, Balague C, Curiel DT. Replicative adenoviruses for cancer therapy. Nat Biotechnol 2000; 18: 7237.
  • 15
    Bergelson JM, Cunningham JA, Droguett G, Kurt-Jones EA, Krithivas A, Hong JS, Horwitz MS, Crowell RL, Finberg RW. Isolation of a common receptor for Coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science 1997; 275: 13203.
  • 16
    Tomko R, Xu R, Philipson L. HCAR and MCAR: the human and mouse cellular receptors for subgroup C adenoviruses and group B coxsackieviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 33526.
  • 17
    Wickham T, Mathias P, Cheresh D, Nemerow G. Integrins αv β3 and αv β5 promote adenovirus internalization but not virus attachment. Cell 1993; 73: 30919.
  • 18
    Roelvink PW, Mi L, G, Einfeld DA, Kovesdi I, Wickham TJ. Identification of a conserved receptor-binding site on the fiber proteins of CAR-recognizing Adenoviridae. Science 1999; 286: 156871.
  • 19
    Bewley MC, Springer K, Zhang YB, Freimuth P, Flanagan JM. Structural analysis of the mechanism of adenovirus binding to its human cellular receptor, CAR. Science 1999; 286: 157983.
  • 20
    Chretien I, Marcuz A, Courtet M, Katevuo K, Vainio O, Heath JK, White SJ, Du P, L. CTX, a Xenopus thymocyte receptor, defines a molecular family conserved throughout vertebrates. Eur J Immunol 1998; 28: 4094104.
  • 21
    Fechner H, Haack A, Wang H, Wang X, Eizema K, Pauschinger M, Schoemaker R, Veghel R, Houtsmuller A, Schultheiss HP, Lamers J, Poller W. Expression of coxsackie adenovirus receptor and αv-integrin does not correlate with adenovector targeting in vivo indicating anatomical vector barriers. Gene Ther 1999; 6: 152035.
  • 22
    Bergelson JM, Krithivas A, Celi L, Droguett G, Horwitz MS, Wickham T, Crowell RL, Finberg RW. The murine CAR homolog is a receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses. J Virol 1998; 72: 4159.
  • 23
    Tomko R, Johansson C, Totrov M, Abagyan R, Frisen J, Philipson L. Expression of the adenovirus receptor and its interaction with the fiber knob. Exp Cell Res 2000; 255: 4755.
  • 24
    Li Y, Pong RC, Bergelson JM, Hall MC, Sagalowsky AI, Tseng CP, Wang Z, Hsieh JT. Loss of adenoviral receptor expression in human bladder cancer cells: a potential impact on the efficacy of gene therapy. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 32530.
  • 25
    Miller CR, Buchsbaum DJ, Reynolds PN, Douglas JT, Gillespie GY, Mayo MS, Raben D, Curiel DT. Differential susceptibility of primary and established human glioma cells to adenovirus infection: targeting via the epidermal growth factor receptor achieves fiber receptor-independent gene transfer. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 573848.
  • 26
    Dmitriev I, Krasnykh V, Miller CR, Wang M, Kashentseva E, Mikheeva G, Belousova N, Curiel DT. An adenovirus vector with genetically modified fibers demonstrates expanded tropism via utilization of a coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor-independent cell entry mechanism. J Virol 1998; 72: 970613.
  • 27
    Hemmi S, Geertsen R, Mezzacasa A, Peter I, Dummer R. The presence of human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor is associated with efficient adenovirus-mediated transgene expression in human melanoma cell cultures. Hum Gene Ther 1998; 9: 236373.
  • 28
    Okegawa T, Li Y, Pong RC, Bergelson JM, Zhou J, Hsieh JT. The dual impact of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression on human prostate cancer gene therapy. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 50316.
  • 29
    Fechner H, Wang X, Wang H, Jansen A, Pauschinger M, Scherubl H, Bergelson JM, Schultheiss HP, Poller W. Trans-complementation of vector replication versus Coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor overexpression to improve transgene expression in poorly permissive cancer cells. Gene Ther 2000; 7: 195468.
  • 30
    Cripe TP, Dunphy EJ, Holub AD, Saini A, Vasi NH, Mahller YY, Collins MH, Snyder JD, Krasnykh V, Curiel DT, Wickham TJ, DeGregori J, et al. Fiber knob modifications overcome low, heterogeneous expression of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor that limits adenovirus gene transfer and oncolysis for human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 295360.
  • 31
    Douglas JT, Kim M, Sumerel LA, Carey DE, Curiel DT. Efficient oncolysis by a replicating adenovirus (ad) in vivo is critically dependent on tumor expression of primary ad receptors. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 8137.
  • 32
    Hidaka C, Milano E, Leopold PL, Bergelson JM, Hackett NR, Finberg RW, Wickham TJ, Kovesdi I, Roelvink P, Crystal RG. CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector- mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. J Clin Invest 1999; 103: 57987.
  • 33
    Wickham T, Tzeng E, Shears L 2nd, Roelvink P, Li Y, Lee G, Brough D, Lizonova A, Kovesdi I. Increased in vitro and in vivo gene transfer by adenovirus vectors containing chimeric fiber proteins. J Virol 1997; 71: 82219.
  • 34
    Wickham T. Targeting adenovirus. Gene Ther 2000; 7: 1104.
  • 35
    Vanderkwaak T, Wang M, Gomez-Navarro J, Rancourt C, Dmitriev I, Krasnykh V, Barnes M, Siegal G, Alvarez R, Curiel D. An advanced generation of adenoviral vectors selectively enhances gene transfer for ovarian cancer gene therapy approaches. Gynecol Oncol 1999; 74: 22734.
  • 36
    Reynolds P, Dmitriev I, Curiel D. Insertion of an RGD motif into the HI loop of adenovirus fiber protein alters the distribution of transgene expression of the systemically administered vector. Gene Ther 1999; 6: 13369.
  • 37
    Krasnykh VN, Douglas JT, van B, V W. Genetic targeting of adenoviral vectors. Mol Ther 2000; 1: 391405.
  • 38
    Collins VP. Gliomas. Cancer Surv 1998; 32: 3751.
  • 39
    Collins VP. Cultured human glial and glioma cells. Int Rev Exp Pathol 1983; 24: 135202.
  • 40
    Reifenberger G, Reifenberger J, Ichimura K, Meltzer PS, Collins VP. Amplification of multiple genes from chromosomal region 12q13–14 in human malignant gliomas: preliminary mapping of the amplicons shows preferential involvement of CDK4, SAS and MDM2. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 4299303.
  • 41
    Kleihues P, Cavenee WK. Tumours of the nervous system. Lyon: IARC, 1997. 66.
  • 42
    Goike HM, Asplund AC, Pettersson EH, Liu L, Sanoudou D, Collins VP. Acquired rearrangement of an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in a human glioblastoma xenograft. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1999; 58: 697701.
  • 43
    Hsu KH, Lonberg-Holm K, Alstein B, Crowell RL. A monoclonal antibody specific for the cellular receptor for the group B coxsackieviruses. J Virol 1988; 62: 164752.
  • 44
    Andersson AM, Pettersson RF. Targeting of a short peptide derived from the cytoplasmic tail of the G1 membrane glycoprotein of Ukuniemi virus (Bunyaviridae) to the Golgi complex. J Virol 1998; 72: 958596.
  • 45
    Ichimura K, Schmidt EE, Goike HM, Collins VP. Human glioblastomas with no alterations of the CDKN2A (p16INK4A, MTS1) and CDK4 genes have frequent mutations of the retinoblastoma gene. Oncogene 1996; 13: 106572.
  • 46
    Goldman MJ, Wilson JM. Expression of αv β5 integrin is necessary for efficient adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in the human airway. J Virol 1995; 69: 59518.
  • 47
    Mori T, Arakawa H, Tokino T, Mineura K, Nakamura Y. Significant increase of adenovirus infectivity in glioma cell lines by extracellular domain of hCAR. Oncol Res 1999; 11: 51321.
  • 48
    Asaoka K, Tada M, Sawamura Y, Ikeda J, Abe H. Dependence of efficient adenoviral gene delivery in malignant glioma cells on the expression levels of the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor. J Neurosurg 2000; 92: 10028.
  • 49
    Fuxe J, Akusjarvi G, Goike HM, Roos G, Collins VP, Pettersson RF. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of p15INK4B inhibits human glioma cell growth, induces replicative senescence and inhibits telomerase activity similarly to p16INK4A. Cell Growth Differ 2000; 11: 37384.
  • 50
    Honda T, Saitoh H, Masuko M, Katagiri-Abe T, Tominaga K, Kozakai I, Kobayashi K, Kumanishi T, Watanabe YG, Odani S, Kuwano R. The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor protein as a cell adhesion molecule in the developing mouse brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2000; 77: 1928.
  • 51
    Okegawa T, Pong RC, Li Y, Bergelson JM, Sagalowsky AI, Hsieh JT. The mechanism of the growth-inhibitory effect of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on human bladder cancer: a functional analysis of car protein structure. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 6592600.