Therapy resistance is the major obstacle to advances in successful cancer treatment. To characterize chromosomal alterations associated with different types of acquired MDR and thermoresistance, we applied CGH to compare a unique panel of human gastric carcinoma cells consisting of the parental, drug-sensitive and thermosensitive cancer cell line EPG85-257P, the atypical MDR variant EPG85-257RNOV, the classical MDR subline EPG85-257RDB and their thermoresistant counterparts EPG85-257P-TR, EPG85-257RNOV-TR and EPG85-257RDB-TR. CGH with genomic DNA prepared from these cell lines as probes successfully identified genomic gains and/or losses in chromosomal regions encoding putative genes associated with drug resistance and/or thermoresistance. These genes included various members of the families of ABC transporters and molecular chaperones. The importance of these cell variant-specific genomic imbalances in the development of MDR and thermoresistance is discussed and remains to be elucidated. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.