• 1
    Ron E, Doody MM, Becker DV, Brill AB, Curtis RE, Goldman MB, Harris BS 3rd, Hoffman DA, McConahey WM, Maxon HR, Preston-Martin S, Warshauer ME, et al. Cancer mortality following treatment for adult hyperthyroidism. Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up Study Group. JAMA 1998; 280: 34755.
  • 2
    Franklyn JA, Maisonneuve P, Sheppard M, Betteridge J, Boyle P. Cancer incidence and mortality after radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 1999; 353: 21115.
  • 3
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Sources and effects of ionising radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. Effects. vol II. New York: United Nations, 2000.
  • 4
    Holm LE, Wiklund KE, Lundell GE, Bergman NA, Bjelkengren G, Cederquist ES, Ericsson UB, Larsson LG, Lidberg ME, Lindberg RS, Wicklund HV, Boice JD Jr. Thyroid cancer after diagnostic doses of iodine-131: a retrospective cohort study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988; 80: 11328.
  • 5
    Hall P, Mattsson A, Boice JD Jr. Thyroid cancer after diagnostic administration of iodine-131. Radiat Res 1996; 145: 8692.
  • 6
    Viswanathan K, Gierlowski TC, Schneider AB. Childhood thyroid cancer. Characteristics and long-term outcome in children irradiated for benign conditions of the head and neck. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1994; 148: 2605.
  • 7
    La Vecchia C, Ron E, Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, Mark SD, Chatenoud L, Braga C, Preston-Martin S, McTiernan A, Kolonel L, Mabuchi K, Jin F, et al. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. III. Oral contraceptives, menopausal replacement therapy and other female hormones. Cancer Causes Control 1999; 10: 15766.
  • 8
    Franceschi S, Preston-Martin S, Dal Maso L, Negri E, La Vecchia C, Mack WJ, McTiernan A, Kolonel L, Mark SD, Mabuchi K, Jin F, Wingren G, et al. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. IV. Benign thyroid diseases. Cancer Causes Control 1999; 10: 58395.
  • 9
    Dal Maso L, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Preston-Martin S, Ron E, Levi F, Mack W, Mark SD, McTiernan A, Kolonel L, Mabuchi K, Jin F, et al. A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer studies. V. Anthropometric factors. Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 13744.
  • 10
    Ron E, Lubin JH, Shore RE, Mabuchi K, Modan B, Pottern LM, Schneider AB, Tucker MA, Boice JD Jr. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiat Res 1995; 141: 25977.
  • 11
    Thompson DE, Mabuchi K, Ron E, Soda M, Tokunaga M, Ochikubo S, Sugimoto S, Ikeda T, Terasaki M, Izumi S, Preston DL. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958–1987. Radiat Res 1994; 137 (Suppl 2): S1767.
  • 12
    Hall P, Berg G, Bjelkengren G, Ericsson UB, Hallquist A, Lidberg M, Lundell G, Tennvall J, Wiklund K. Cancer mortality after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism. Int J Cancer 1992; 50: 88690.
  • 13
    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Radiation dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals. Annals of the ICRP 53. vol. 18. Oxford: Pergamon, 1987.
  • 14
    National Tax Board. Population registration in Sweden. Brochure RSV 711B, Stockholm: National Tax Board, 2000. (
  • 15
    National Board of Health and Welfare, Centre for Epidemiology. Cancer incidence in Sweden 2000. Article 2002-42-5. Stockholm: National Board of Health and Welfare, 2002. (
  • 16
    Preston DL, Lubin JH, Pierce DA, McConney ME. EPICURE, release 2.10. Seattle: HiroSoft, 1998. (
  • 17
    Ulm K. A simple method to calculate the confidence interval of a standardized mortality ratio (SMR). Am J Epidemiol 1990; 131: 3735.
  • 18
    Breslow NE, Day NE. Statistical methods in cancer research. The design and analysis of cohort studies. vol. II. IARC Sci. Publ. 82. Lyon: IARC, 1987.
  • 19
    Cox DR. Regression models and life tables (with discussion). J R Stat Soc B 1972; 34: 187220.
  • 20
    Astakhova LN, Anspaugh LR, Beebe GW, Bouville A, Drozdovitch VV, Garber V, Gavrilin YI, Khrouch VT, Kuvshinnikov AV, Kuzmenkov YN, Minenko VP, Moschik KV, et al. Chernobyl-related thyroid cancer in children of Belarus: a case-control study. Radiat Res 1998; 150: 34956.
  • 21
    Ron E, Modan B. Benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms after childhood irradiation for tinea capitis. J Natl Cancer Inst 1980; 65: 711.
  • 22
    Wang ZY, Boice JD Jr, Wei LX, Beebe GW, Zha YR, Kaplan MM, Tao ZF, Maxon HR 3rd, Zhang SZ, Schneider AB. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990; 82: 47885.
  • 23
    de Vathaire F, Fragu P, Francois P, Benhamou S, Ward P, Benhamou E, Avril MF, Grimaud E, Sancho-Garnier H, Parmentier C. Long-term effects on the thyroid of irradiation for skin angiomas in childhood. Radiat Res 1993; 133: 3816.
  • 24
    Franceschi S, Boyle P, Maisonneuve P, La Vecchia C, Burt AD, Kerr DJ, MacFarlane GJ. The epidemiology of thyroid carcinoma. Crit Rev Oncog 1993; 4: 2552.
  • 25
    Hrafnkelsson J, Joonasson JG, Sigurdsson G, Sigvaldason H, Tulinius H. Thyroid cancer in Iceland 1955–1984. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1988; 118: 56672.
  • 26
    Pottern LM, Stone BJ, Day NE, Pickle LW, Fraumeni JF Jr. Thyroid cancer in Connecticut, 1935–1975: an analysis by cell type. Am J Epidemiol 1980; 112: 76474.