• 1
    Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B. Lessons from hereditary colon cancer. Cell 1996;87: 15970.
  • 2
    Powell SM, Zilz N, Beazer-Barclay Y, Bryan TM, Hamilton SR, Thibodeau SN, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW. APC mutations occur early during colorectal tumorigenesis. Nature 1992;359: 2357.
  • 3
    Peifer M, Polakis P. Wnt signalling in oncogenesis and embryogenesis—a look outside the nucleus. Science 2000;287: 16069.
  • 4
    Bienz M, Clevers H. Linking colorectal cancer to Wnt signaling. Cell 2000:103: 31120.
  • 5
    He T-C, Sparks AB, Rago C, Hermeking H, Zawel L, da Costa LT, Morin PJ, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW. Identification of c-MYC as a target of the APC pathway. Science 1998;281: 150912.
  • 6
    Tetsu O, McCormic F. β-catenin regulates expression of cyclin D1 in colon carcinoma cells. Nature 1999;398: 4226.
  • 7
    Romagnolo B, Berrebi D, Saadi-Keddoucci S, Porteu A, Pichard A-L, Peuchmaur M, Vandewalle A, Kahn A, Perret C. Intestinal dysplasia and adenoma in transgenic mice after overexpression of an activated β-catenin. Cancer Res 1999;59: 38759.
  • 8
    Harada N, Tamai Y, Ishikawa T, Sauer B, Takaku K, Oshima M, Takeko MM. Intestinal polyposis in mice with a dominant stable mutation of the β-catenin gene. EMBO J 1999;18: 593142.
  • 9
    Sparks AB, Morin PJ, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW. Mutational analysis of the APC/beta-catenin/Tcf pathway in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1998;58: 11304.
  • 10
    Sellin JH, Umar S, Xiao J, Morris AP. Increased β-catenin expression and nuclear translocation accompany cellular hyperproliferation in vivo. Cancer Res 2001;61: 2899906.
  • 11
    Wong MH, Rubinfeld B, Gordon JI. Effects of forced expression of an NH2-terminal truncated β-catenin on mouse intestinal epithelial homeostasis. J Cell Biol 1998;141: 76577.
  • 12
    Roh H, Green DW, Boswell CB, Pippin JA, Drebin JA. Suppression of β-catenin inhibits the neoplastic growth of APC-mutant colon cancer cells. Cancer Res 2001;61: 65638.
  • 13
    Mariadason JM, Bordonaro M, Aslam F, Shi L, Kuraguchi M, Velcich A, Augenlicht LH. Down-regulation of β-catenin signaling is linked to colonic epithelial cell differentiation. Cancer Res 2001;61: 346571.
  • 14
    Naishiro Y, Yamada T, Takaoka AS, Hayashi R, Hasegawa F, Imai K, Hirohashi S. Restoration of epithelial cell polarity in a colorectal cancer cell line by suppression of β-catenin/T-cell factor 4-mediated gene transactivation. Cancer Res 2001;61: 27518.
  • 15
    Yamada Y, Yoshimi N, Hirose Y, Kawabata K, Matsunaga K, Shimizu M, Hara A, Mori H. Frequent β-catenin gene mutations and accumulations of the protein in the putative preneoplastic lesions lacking macroscopic aberrant crypt foci appearance, in rat colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2000;60: 33237.
  • 16
    Yamada Y, Yoshimi N, Hirose Y, Matsunaga K, Katayama M, Sakata K, Shimizu M, Kuno T, Mori H. Sequential analysis of morphological and biological properties of β-catenin-accumulated crypts, provable premalignant lesions independent of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2001;61: 18748.
  • 17
    Paulsen JE, Steffensen I-L, Loberg EM, Husoy T, Namork E, Alexander J. Qualitative and quantitative relationship between dysplastic aberrant crypt foci and tumorigenesis in the Min/+ mouse colon. Cancer Res 2001;61: 50105.
  • 18
    Novak A, Hsu S-C, Leung-Hagesteijn C, Radeva G, Papkoff J, Montesano R, Roskelley C, Grosschedl R, Dedhart S. Cell adhesion and the integrin-linked kinase regulate the LEF-1 and β-catenin signaling pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95: 43749.
  • 19
    Tan C, Costello P, Sanghera J, Dominguez D, Baulida J, de Herreros AG, Dedhar S. Inhibition of integrin linked kinase (ILK) suppresses β-catenin-Lef/Tcf-dependent transcription and expression of the E-cadherin repressor, snail, in APC −/− human colon carcinoma cells. Oncogene 2001;20: 13340.
  • 20
    Polakis P. More than one way to skin a catenin. Cell 2001;105: 53666.
  • 21
    Damalas A, Ben-Ze'ev A, Simcha I, Shtutman M, Leal JFM, Zhurinsky J, Geiger B, Oren M. Excess β-catenin promotes accumulation of transcriptionally active p53. EMBO J 1999;18: 305463.
  • 22
    Halberg RB, Katzung DS, Hoff PD, Moser AR, Cole CE, Lubet RA, Donehower LA, Jacoby RF, Dove WF. Tumorigenesis in the multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse: redundancy of negative regulators and specificity of modifiers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97: 34616.
  • 23
    Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(Suppl.): 1682S7S.
  • 24
    Reddy BS, Hamid R, Rao CV. Effect of dietary oligofructose and inulin on colonic preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci inhibition. Carcinogenesis 1997;18: 13714.
  • 25
    Rao CV, Chou D, Simi B, Ku H, Reddy BS. Prevention of colonic aberrant crypt foci and modulation of large bowel microbial activity by dietary coffee fiber, inulin and pectin. Carcinogenesis 1998;10: 18159.
  • 26
    Rowland IR, Rumney CJ, Coutts JT, Lievense LC. Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 1998;19: 2815.
  • 27
    Mutanen M, Pajari A-M, Oikarinen S. Beef induces and rye bran prevents formation of intestinal polyps in APCMin mice: relation to β-catenin and PKC-isoforms. Carcinogenesis 2000;21: 116773.
  • 28
    Dietrich WF, Lander ES, Smith JS, Moser AR, Gould KA, Luongo C, Borenstein N, Dove W. Genetic identification of Mom-1, a major modifier locus affecting Min-induced intestinal neoplasia in the mouse. Cell 1993;75: 6319.
  • 29
    Reeves PG, Nielsen FH, Fahey GC Jr. AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition Ad Hoc Committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr 1993;123: 193951.
  • 30
    Brancolini C, Lazarevic D, Rodriguez J, Schneider C. Dismantling cell-cell contacts during apoptosis is coupled to a caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of β-catenin. J Cell Biol 1997;139: 75971.
  • 31
    Hardman WE, Cameron IL, Heitman DW, Contreras E. Demonstration of the need for end point validation of putative biomarkers—failure of aberrant crypt foci to predict colon cancer incidence. Cancer Res 1991:5: 638892.
  • 32
    Good CK, Lasko CM, Adam J, Bird RP. Diverse effect of fish oil on the growth of aberrant crypt foci and tumor multiplicity in F344 rats. Nutr Cancer 1998;31: 20411.
  • 33
    Pretlow TP, Bird RP. Correspondence re: Y Yamada et al. Frequent β-catenin gene mutations and accumulations of the protein in the putative preneoplastic lesions lacking macroscopic aberrant crypt foci appearance, in rat colon carcinogenesis; Sequential analysis of morphological and biological properties of β-catenin-accumulated crypts, provable premalignant lesions independent of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2001;61: 7699700.
  • 34
    Hao XP, Pretlow TG, Rao JS, Pretlow TP. β-Catenin expression is altered in human colonic aberrant crypt foci. Cancer Res 2001;61: 80858.
  • 35
    Pierre F, Perrin P, Hamp M, Bornet F, Meflah K, Menanteau J. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides reduce the occurrence of colon tumours and develop gut-associated lymphoid tissue in Min mice. Cancer Res 1997;57: 2258.
  • 36
    Apajalahti JHA, Kettunen H, Nurminen PH, Rautonen N, Holben WE, Mutanen M. Culture-independent microbial community analysis reveals that inulin in the diet primarily affects previously unknown bacteria in the mouse cecum. Appl Environ Microb 2002;68: 498695.
  • 37
    Inomata M, Ochiai A, Akimoto S, Kitano S, Hirohashi S. Alterations of β-catenin expression in colonic epithelial cells of familial adenomatous polyposis patients. Cancer Res 1996;56: 22137.
  • 38
    Sheng H, Shao J, Williams CS, Pereira MA, Taketo MM, Oshima M, Reynolds AB, Washington MK, DuBois R, Beauchamp RD. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin in hereditary and carcinogen-induced intestinal adenomas. Carcinogenesis 1998;19: 5439.
  • 39
    McEntee MF, Chiu C-H, Whelan J. Relationship of β-catenin and Bcl-2 expression to sulindac-induced regression of intestinal tumors in Min mice. Carcinogenesis 1999;20: 63540.
  • 40
    Hugh TJ, Dillon SA, O'Dowd G, Getty B, Pignatelli M, Poston GJ, Kinsella AR. β-Catenin expression on primary and metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Int J Cancer 1999;82: 50411.
  • 41
    Iwamoto M, Ahnen DJ, Franklin WA, Maltzman TH. Expression of β-catenin and full-length APC protein in normal and neoplastic colonic tissues. Carcinogenesis 2000;21: 193540.
  • 42
    Herter P, Kuhnen C, Müller K-M, Wittinghofer A, Müller O. Intracellular distribution of β-catenin in colorectal adenomas, carcinomas and Peutz-Jeghers polyps. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1999;125: 297304.
  • 43
    Orford K, Orford CC, Byers SW. Exogenous expression of β-catenin regulates contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, anoikis, and radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. J Cell Biol 1999;146: 85567.
  • 44
    Staal FJT, van Noort M, Strous GJ, Clevers HC. Wnt signals are transmitted through N-terminally dephosphorylated β-catenin. EMBO Rep 2002;3: 638.
  • 45
    Fukuda K. Apoptosis-associated cleavage of β-catenin in human colon cancer and rat hepatoma cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1999;31: 51929.
  • 46
    Steinhusen U, Badock V, Bauer A, Behrens J, Wittman-Liebold B, Dörken B, Bommert K. Apoptosis-induced cleavage of β-catenin by caspase-3 results in proteolytic fragments with reduced transactivation potential. J Biol Chem 2000;275: 1634553.
  • 47
    Kim K, Pang KM, Evans M, Hay ED. Overexpression of β-catenin induces apoptosis independent of its transactivation function with LEF-1 or the involvement of major G1 cell cycle regulators. Mol Biol Cell 2000;11: 350923.
  • 48
    Hao X, Tomlinson I, Ilyas M, Palazzo JP, Talbot IC. Reciprocity between membranous and nuclear expression of β-catenin in colorectal tumors. Virchows Arch 1997;431: 16772.
  • 49
    Christofori G, Semb H. The role of the cell-adhesion molecule E-cadherin as a tumour-suppressor gene. Trends Biochem Sci 1994;24: 736.
  • 50
    Oyama T, Kanai Y, Ochiai A, Akimoto S, Oda T, Yanagihara K, Nagafuchi A, Tsukita S, Shibamoto S, Ito F, Takeichi M, Matsuda H, Hirohashi S. A truncated β-catenin disrupts the interaction between E-cadherin and α-catenin: a cause of loss of intercellular adhesiveness in human cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 1994;54: 62827.
  • 51
    Mahmoud NN, Boolbol SK, Bilinski RT, Martucci C, Chadburn A, Bertagnolli MM. Apc gene mutation is associated with a dominant-negative effect upon intestinal cell migration. Cancer Res 1997;57: 504550.
  • 52
    Boolbol SK, Dannenberg AJ, Chadburn A, Martucci C, Guo X, Ramonetti JT, Abreu-Goris M, Newmark HL, Lipkin ML, DeCosse JJ, Bertagnolli MM. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression and tumor formation are blocked by sulindac in a murine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Cancer Res 1996;56: 255660.
  • 53
    Matsuzawa S-I, Reed JC. Siah-1, SIP, and Ebi collaborate in a novel pathway for β-catenin degradation linked to p53 responses. Mol Cell 2001;7: 91526.
  • 54
    Liu J, Stevens J, Rote CA, Yost HJ, Hu Y, Neufeld KL, White RL, Matsunami N. Siah-1 mediates a novel β-catenin degradation pathway linking p53 to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein. Mol Cell 2001;7: 92736.
  • 55
    Sadot E, Geiger B, Oren M, Ben-Ze'ev A. Down-regulation of β-catenin by activated p53. Mol Cell Biol 2001;21: 676881.