• 1
    Parkin DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J. Estimates of the worldwide incidence of eighteen major cancers in 1985. Int J Cancer 1993; 54: 594606.
  • 2
    Hundahl SA, Phillips JL, Menck HR. The National Cancer Data Base Report on poor survival of U.S. gastric carcinoma patients treated with gastrectomy: Fifth Edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging, proximal disease, and the “different disease” hypothesis. Cancer 2000; 88: 92132.
  • 3
    Sheen-Chen SM, Chou FF, Chen YS, Chen MJ, Chen FC, Chen JJ, Wan YL. Early gastric cancer in southern Taiwan. J Clin Gastroenterol 1992; 15: 3025.
  • 4
    Yokota T, Kunii Y, Teshima S, Yamada Y, Saito T, Takahashi M, Kikuchi S, Yamauchi H. Significant prognostic factors in patients with early gastric cancer. Int Surg 2000; 85: 28690.
  • 5
    Correa P. Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process—First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. Cancer Res 1992; 52: 673540.
  • 6
    You WC, Zhang L, Gail MH, Li JY, Chang YS, Blot WJ, Zhao CL, Liu WD, Li HQ, Ma JL, Hu YR, Bravo JC, et al. Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk. Int J Epidemiol 1998; 27: 9458.
  • 7
    Correa P, Cuello C, Duque E. Carcinoma and intestinal metaplasia of the stomach in Colombian migrants. J Natl Cancer Inst 1970; 44: 297306.
  • 8
    Imai T, Murayama H. Time trend in the prevalence of intestinal metaplasia in Japan. Cancer 1983; 52: 35361.
  • 9
    Filipe MI, Munoz N, Matko I, Kato I, Pompe-Kirn V, Jutersek A, Teuchmann S, Benz M, Prijon T. Intestinal metaplasia types and the risk of gastric cancer: a cohort study in Slovenia. Int J Cancer 1994; 57: 3249.
  • 10
    Whiting JL, Sigurdsson A, Rowlands DC, Hallissey MT, Fielding JW. The long term results of endoscopic surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions. Gut 2002; 50: 37881.
  • 11
    You WC, Zhang L, Gail MH, Ma JL, Chang YS, Blot WJ, Li JY, Zhao CL, Liu WD, Li HQ, Hu YR, Bravo JC, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1998; 27: 9414.
  • 12
    Kneller RW, You WC, Chang YS, Liu WD, Zhang L, Zhao L, Xu GW, Fraumeni JF, Blot WJ. Cigarette smoking and other risk factors for progression of precancerous stomach lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 1992; 84: 12616.
  • 13
    Russo A, Maconi G, Spinelli P, Felice GD, Eboli M, Andreola S, Ravagnani F, Settesoldi D, Ferrari D, Lombardo C, Bertario L. Effect of lifestyle, smoking, and diet on development of intestinal metaplasia in H. pylori-positive subjects. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 14028.
    Direct Link:
  • 14
    Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, Guo W, Dawsey S, Wang GQ, Yang CS, Zheng SF, Gail M, Li GY. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85: 148392.
  • 15
    Zhang L, Blot WJ, You WC, Chang YS, Liu XQ, Kneller RW, Zhao L, Liu WD, Li JY, Jin ML. Serum micronutrients in relation to pre-cancerous gastric lesions. Int J Cancer 1994; 56: 6504.
  • 16
    Nomura A, Yamakawa H, Ishidate T, Kamiyama S, Masuda H, Stemmermann GN, Heilburn LK, Hankin JH. Intestinal metaplasia in Japan: association with diet. J Natl Cancer Inst 1982; 68: 4015.
  • 17
    Bukin YV, Draudin-Krylenko VA, Kuvshinov YP, Poddubniy BK, Shabanov MA. Decrease of ornithine decarboxylase activity in premalignant gastric mucosa and regression of small intestinal metaplasia in patients supplemented with high doses of vitamin E. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1997; 6: 5436.
  • 18
    Dhillon PK, Farrow DC, Vaughan TL, Chow WH, Risch HA, Gammon MD, Mayne ST, Stanford JL, Schoenberg JB, Ahsan H, Dubrow R, West AB, et al. Family history of cancer and risk of esophageal and gastric cancers in the United States. Int J Cancer 2001; 93: 14852.
  • 19
    Munoz N, Plummer M, Vivas J, Moreno V, De Sanjose S, Lopez G, Oliver W. A case-control study of gastric cancer in Venezuela. Int J Cancer 2001; 93: 41723.
  • 20
    Palli D, Galli M, Caporaso NE, Cipriani F, Decarli A, Saieva C, Fraumeni JF, Buiatti E. Family history and risk of stomach cancer in Italy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1994; 3: 158.
  • 21
    Nagase H, Ogino K, Yoshida I, Matsuda H, Yoshida M, Nakamura H, Dan S, Ishimaru M. Family history-related risk of gastric cancer in Japan: a hospital-based case-control study. Jpn J Cancer Res 1996; 87: 10258.
  • 22
    Yu GP, Hsieh CC. Risk factors for stomach cancer: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai. Cancer Causes Control 1991; 2: 16974.
  • 23
    Hayes JD, Pulford DJ. The glutathione s-transferase supergene family: regulation of GST and the contribution of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 1995; 30: 445600.
  • 24
    Katoh T, Nagata N, Kuroda Y, Itoh H, Kawahara A, Kuroki N, Ookuma R, Bell DA. Glutathione s-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) genetic polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Carcinogenesis 1996; 17: 18559.
  • 25
    Saadat I, Saadat M. Glutathione s-transferase M1 and T1 null genotypes and the risk of gastric and colorectal cancers. Cancer Lett 2001; 169: 216.
  • 26
    Setiawan VW, Zhang ZF, Yu GP, Li YL, Lu ML, Tsai CJ, Cordova D, Wang MR, Guo CH, Yu SZ, Kurtz RC. GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes and the risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2000; 9: 7380.
  • 27
    Yang CS, Smith TJ. Mechanisms of nitrosamine bioactivation and carcinogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol 1996; 387: 38594.
  • 28
    Hecht SS. Biochemistry, biology, and carcinogenicity of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Chem Res Toxicol 1998; 11: 559603.
  • 29
    Sierra R, Ohshima H, Munoz N, Teuchmann S, Pena AS, Malaveille C, Pignatelli B, Chinnock A, el Ghissassi F, Chen C. Exposure to N-nitrosamines and other risk factors for gastric cancer in Costa Rican children. vol. 105. Lyon: IARC, 1991. 1627.
  • 30
    Stemmermann GN, Mower H. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer. J Clin Gastroenterol 1981; 3(Suppl): 237.
  • 31
    Chen SY, Liu TY, Chen MJ, Lin JT, Sheu, JC, Chen CJ. Seroprevalences of hepatitis B and C viruses and Helicobacter pylori infection in a small, isolated population at high risk of gastric and liver cancer. Int J Cancer 1997; 71: 7769.
  • 32
    Negretti de Bratter VE, Bratter P, Tomiak A. An automated microtechnique for selenium determination in human body fluids by flow injection hydride atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HAAS). J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 1990; 4: 418.
  • 33
    Chen SY, Chen CJ, Tsai WY, Ahsan H, Liu TY, Lin JT, Santella RM. Associations of plasma aflatoxin B1-albumin adduct level with plasma selenium level and genetic polymorphisms of glutathione s-transferase M1 and T1. Nutr Cancer 2000; 38: 17985.
  • 34
    Miller KW, Yang CS. An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous analysis of plasma retinol, α-tocopherol, and various carotenoids. Anal Biochem 1985; 145: 216.
  • 35
    Chen CJ, Yu MW, Liaw YF, Wang LW, Chiamprasert S, Matin F, Hirvonen A, Bell DA, Santella RM. Chronic hepatitis B carriers with null genotypes of glutathione s-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms who are exposed to aflatoxin are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Hum Genet 1996; 59: 12834.
  • 36
    Yu MW, Gladek-Yarborough A, Chiamprasert S, Santella RM, Liaw YF, Chen CJ. Cytochrome P450 2E1 and glutathione s-transferase M1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 126673.
  • 37
    Zhang L, Blot WJ, You WC, Chang YS, Kneller RW, Jin ML, Li JY, Zhao L, Liu WD, Zhang JS, Ma JL, Samloff IM. Helicobacter pylori antibodies in relation to precancerous gastric lesions in a high-risk Chinese population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1996; 5: 62730.
  • 38
    Osawa H, Inoue F, Yoshida Y. Inverse relation of serum Helicobacter pylori antibody titers and extent of intestinal metaplasia. J Clin Pathol 1996; 49: 1125.
  • 39
    Craanen ME, Blok P, Dekker W, Ferwerda J, Tytgat GN. Subtypes of intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori. Gut 1992; 33: 597600.
  • 40
    Masci E, Viale E, Freschi M, Porcellati M, Tittobello A. Precancerous gastric lesions and Helicobacter pylori. Hepatogastroenterology 1996; 43: 8548.
  • 41
    IARC. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Alcohol drinking. vol. 44. Lyon: IARC, 1988. 1378.
  • 42
    Stemmermann G, Haenszel W, Locke F. Epidemiologic pathology of gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma among Japanese in Hawaii. J Natl Cancer Inst 1977; 58: 1320.
  • 43
    Kono S, Hirohata T. Nutrition and stomach cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1996; 7: 4155.
  • 44
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, Decarli A. Case-control study on influence of methionine, nitrite, and salt on gastric carcinogenesis in northern Italy. Nutr Cancer 1997; 27: 658.
  • 45
    Lijinsky W, Epstein SS. Nitrosamines as environmental carcinogens. Nature 1970; 225: 213.
  • 46
    Ward MH, Pan WH, Cheng YJ, Li FH, Brinton LA, Chen CJ, Hsu MM, Chen IH, Levine PH, Yang CS, Hildesheim A. Dietary exposure to nitrite and nitrosamines and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Int J Cancer 2000; 86: 6039.
  • 47
    Chen W, Weisburger JH, Fiala ES, Spratt TE, Carmella SG, Chen D, Hecht SS. Gastric carcinogenesis: 2-chloro-4-methylthiobutanoic acid, a novel mutagen in salted, pickled Sanma hiraki fish, or similarly treated methionine. Chem Res Toxicol 1996; 9: 5866.
  • 48
    Kato S, Onda M, Matsukura N, Tokunaga A, Matsuda N, Yamashita K, Shields PG. Genetic polymorphisms of the cancer related gene and Helicobacter pylori infection in Japanese gastric cancer patients. An age and gender matched case-control study. Cancer 1996; 77(Suppl): 165461.
  • 49
    El Masri HA, Bell DA, Portier CJ. Effects of glutathione transferase theta polymorphism on the risk estimates of dichloromethane to humans. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1999; 158: 22130.
  • 50
    Landi S. Mammalian class theta GST and differential susceptibility to carcinogens: a review. Mutat Res 2000; 463: 24783.
  • 51
    Wang KY, Lin JT, Chen CJ, Hsieh LL. The relationship between the genotypes of cancer susceptibility genes and the development of gastric cancer. China J Public Health 1998; 17: 22641.
  • 52
    Camus AM, Geneste O, Honkakoski P, Bereziat JC, Henderson CJ, Wolf CR, Bartsch H, Lang MA. High variability of nitrosamine metabolism among individuals: role of cytochromes P450 2A6 and 2E1 in the dealkylation of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine in mice and humans. Mol Carcinogenesis 1993; 7: 26875.
  • 53
    Hayashi S, Watanabe J, Kawajiri K. Genetic polymorphisms in the 5′-flanking region change transcriptional regulation of the human cytochrome P450IIE1 gene. J Biochem 1991; 110: 55965.
  • 54
    Lucas D, Menez JF, Berthou F. Chlorzoxazone: an in vitro and in vivo substrate probe for liver CYP2E1. Methods Enzymol 1996; 272: 11523.
  • 55
    Marchand LL, Wilkinson GR, Wilkens LR. Genetic and dietary predictors of CYP2E1 activity: a phenotyping study in Hawaii Japanese using chlorzoxazone. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1999; 8: 495500.
  • 56
    Nishimoto IN, Hanaoka T, Sugimura H, Nagura K, Ihara M, Li XJ, Arai T, Hamada GS, Kowalski LP, Tsugane S. Cytochrome P450 2E1 polymorphism in gastric cancer in Brazil: case-control studies of Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2000; 9: 67580.