SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Parkin DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J. Estimates of the worldwide incidence of eighteen major cancers in 1985. Int J Cancer 1993;54: 594606.
  • 2
    Vizcaino AP, Moreno V, Bosch FX, Munoz N, Barros-Dios XM, Borras J, Parkin DM. 2000. International trends in incidence of cervical cancer: II. Squamous-cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2000;86: 42935.
  • 3
    Papanicolaou GN. Science 1942;95: 4389.
  • 4
    Kurman RJ, Henson DE, Herbst AL, Noller KL, Schiffman MH. Interim guidelines for management of abnormal cervical cytology. The 1992 National Cancer Institute Workshop. JAMA 1994;271: 18669.
  • 5
    Laara E, Day NE, Hakama M. Trends in mortality from cervical cancer in the Nordic countries: association with organised screening programmes. Lancet 1987;1: 12479.
  • 6
    Anderson GH, Boyes DA, Benedet JL, Le Riche JC, Matisic JP, Suen KC, Worth AJ, Millner A, Bennett OM. Organisation and results of the cervical cytology screening programme in British Columbia, 1955–85. BMJ 1988;296: 9758.
  • 7
    Hakama M. Screening for cervical cancer. Cancer Treat Res 1996;86: 419.
  • 8
    Jensen OM, Esteve J, Moller H, Renard H. Cancer in the European Community and its member states. Eur J Cancer 1990;26: 1167256.
  • 9
    Lieu D. The Papanicolaou smear: its value and limitations. J Fam Pract 1996;42: 3919.
  • 10
    Herrero, R. Epidemiology of cervical cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr., 1-6, 1996.
  • 11
    Sasieni PD, Cuzick J, Lynch-Farmery E. Estimating the efficacy of screening by auditing smear histories of women with and without cervical cancer. The National Co-ordinating Network for Cervical Screening Working Group. Br J Cancer 1996;73: 10015.
  • 12
    Cuzick J, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Screening for cervical cancer. Lancet 1998;351: 143940.
  • 13
    Spitzer M. Cervical screening adjuncts: recent advances. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179: 54456.
  • 14
    Schechter CB. Cost-effectiveness of rescreening conventionally prepared cervical smears by PAPNET testing. Acta Cytol 1996;40: 127282.
  • 15
    Follen M, Richards-Kortum R. Emerging technologies and cervical cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92: 3635.
  • 16
    ALTS Group. Human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with cytologic evidence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: baseline data from a randomized trial. The Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study (ALTS) Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92: 397402.
  • 17
    McCluggage WG, Walsh MY, Thornton CM, Hamilton PW, Date A, Caughley LM, Bharucha H. Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;105: 20610.
  • 18
    Al-Saleh W, Delvenne P, Greimers R, Fridman V, Doyen J, Boniver J. Assessment of Ki-67 antigen immunostaining in squamous intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix. Correlation with the histologic grade and human papillomavirus type. Am J Clin Pathol 1995;104: 15460.
  • 19
    Resnick M, Lester S, Tate JE, Sheets EE, Sparks C, Crum CP. 1996. Viral and histopathologic correlates of MN and MIB-1 expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Hum Pathol 1996;27: 2349.
  • 20
    Isacson C, Kessis TD, Hedrick L, Cho KR. Both cell proliferation and apoptosis increase with lesion grade in cervical neoplasia but do not correlate with human papillomavirus type. Cancer Res 1996;56: 66974.
  • 21
    Williams GH, Romanowski P, Morris L, Madine M, Mills AD, Stoeber K, Marr J, Laskey RA, Coleman N. Improved cervical smear assessment using antibodies against proteins that regulate DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95: 149327.
  • 22
    Liao SY, Brewer C, Zavada J, Pastorek J, Pastorevka S, Manetta A, Berman ML, DiSaia P, Stanbridge EJ. Identification of the MN antigen as a diagnostic biomarker of cervical intraepithelial squamous and glandular neoplasia and cervical carcinomas. Am J Pathol 1994; 145: 598609.
  • 23
    Liao S-Y, Stanbridge EJ. Expression of the MN antigen in cervical Papanicolaou smears is an early diagnostic biomarker of cervical dysplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarker Prev 1996;5: 54957.
  • 24
    Liao S-Y, Stanbridge EJ. Expression of MN/CA9 protein in Papanicolaou smears containing atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance is a diagnostic biomarker of cervical dysplasia and neoplasia. Cancer 2000;88: 110821.
  • 25
    Brewer CA, Liao SY, Wilczynski SP, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J, Zavada J, Kurosaki T, Manetta A, Berman ML, Disaia PJ, Stanbridge EJ. A study of biomarkers in cervical carcinoma and clinical correlation of the novel biomarker MN. Gynecol Oncol 1996;63: 33744.
  • 26
    Schiffman MH, Bauer HM, Hoover RN, Glass AG, Cadell DM, Rush BB, Scott DR, Sherman ME, Kurman RJ, Wacholder S. Epidemiologic evidence showing that human papillomavirus infection causes most cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85: 95864.
  • 27
    zur Hausen H. Papillomaviruses in human cancers. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 1999;111: 5817.
  • 28
    zur Hausen H. Papillomaviruses causing cancer: evasion from host-cell control in early events in carcinogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 6908.
  • 29
    Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV, Snijders PJ, Peto J, Meijer CJ, Munoz N. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 1999;189: 129.
  • 30
    von Knebel Doeberitz M, Oltersdorf T, Schwarz E, Gissmann L. Correlation of modified human papilloma virus early gene expression with altered growth properties in C4-1 cervical carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 1988;48: 37806.
  • 31
    Dürst M, Glitz D, Schneider A, zur Hausen H. 1992. Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) gene expression and DNA replication in cervical neoplasia: analysis by in situ hybridization. Virology 1992;189: 13240.
  • 32
    Scheffner M, Huibregtse JM, Vierstra RD, Howley PM. 1993. The HPV-16 E6 and E6-AP complex functions as a ubiquitin-protein ligase in the ubiquitination of p53. Cell 1993;75: 495505.
  • 33
    Chellappan S, Kraus VB, Kroger B, Munger K, Howley PM, Phelps WC, Nevins JR. Adenovirus E1A, simian virus 40 tumor antigen, and human papillomavirus E7 protein share the capacity to disrupt the interaction between transcription factor E2F and the retinoblastoma gene product. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89: 45493.
  • 34
    Khleif SN, DeGregori J, Yee CL, Otterson GA, Kaye FJ, Nevins JR, Howley PM. Inhibition of cyclin D-CDK4/CDK6 activity is associated with an E2F-mediated induction of cyclin kinase inhibitor activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93: 435054.
  • 35
    Nevins JR. E2F: a link between the Rb tumor suppressor protein and viral oncoproteins. Science 1992;258: 4249.
  • 36
    Sherr CJ. Cancer cell cycles. Science 1996;274: 16727.
  • 37
    Dictor M, Ehinger M, Mertens F, Akervall J, Wennerberg J. Abnormal cell cycle regulation in malignancy. Am J Clin Pathol 1999;112: 4052.
  • 38
    Harbour JW, Dean DC. Rb function in cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. Nature Cell Biol 2000;2: 657.
  • 39
    Serrano M, Hannon GJ, Beach D. A new regulatory motif in cell-cycle control causing specific inhibition of cyclin D/CDK4. Nature 1993; 366: 7047.
  • 40
    Kamb A, Gruis NA, Weaver-Feldhaus J, Liu Q, Harshman K, Tavtigian SV, Stockert E, Day RS3, Johnson BE, Skolnick MH. A cell cycle regulator potentially involved in genesis of many tumor types. Science 1994;264: 436440.
  • 41
    Nobori T, Miura K, Wu DJ, Lois A, Takabayashi K, Carson DA. Deletions of the cyclin-dependent kinase-4 inhibitor gene in multiple human cancers. Nature 1994;368: 7536.
  • 42
    Caldas C, Hahn SA, da Costa LT, Redston MS, Schutte M, Seymour AB, Weinstein CL, Hruban RH, Yeo CJ, Kern SE. Frequent somatic mutations and homozygous deletions of the p16 (MTS1) gene in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Nature Genet 1994;8: 2732.
  • 43
    Hussussian, C.J., Struewing, J. P., Goldstein, A. M., Higgins, P. A., Ally, D. S., Sheahan, M. D., Clark, W. H., Jr., Tucker, M. A., and Dracopoli, N. C. Germline p16 mutations in familial melanoma. Nat. Genet., 8: 15-21 (1994).
  • 44
    Mori T, Miura K, Aoki T, Nishihira T, Mori S, Nakamura Y. Frequent somatic mutation of the MTS1/CDK4I (multiple tumor suppressor/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor) gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res 1994;54: 33967.
  • 45
    Cairns P, Polascik TJ, Eby Y, Tokino K, Califano J, Merlo A, Mao L, Herath J, Jenkins R, Westra W. Frequency of homozygous deletion at p16/CDKN2 in primary human tumours. Nature Genet 1995;11: 2102.
  • 46
    Walker DG, Duan W, Popovic EA, Kaye AH, Tomlinson FH, Lavin M. Homozygous deletions of the multiple tumor suppressor gene 1 in the progression of human astrocytomas. Cancer Res 1995;55: 203.
  • 47
    Kanuma T, Nishida J, Gima T, Barrett JC, Wake N. Alterations of the p16INK4a gene in human ovarian cancers. Mol Carcinog 1997;18: 13441.
  • 48
    Belinsky SA, Nikula KJ, Palmisano WA, Michels R, Saccomanno G, Gabrielson E, Baylin SB, Herman JG. Aberrant methylation of p16(INK4a) is an early event in lung cancer and a potential biomarker for early diagnosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95: 118916.
  • 49
    Li Y, Nichols MA, Shay JW, Xiong Y. Transcriptional repression of the D-type cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 by the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product pRb. Cancer Res 1994;54: 607882.
  • 50
    Kim YT, Cho NH, Park SW, Kim JW. Underexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors in cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1998;71: 3845.
  • 51
    Nakashima R, Fujita M, Enomoto T, et al. Alteration of p16 and p15 genes in human uterine tumours. Br J Cancer 1999;80: 45867.
  • 52
    Nuovo GJ, Plaia TW, Belinsky SA, Baylin SB, Herman JG. In situ detection of the hypermethylation-induced inactivation of the p16 gene as an early event in oncogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96: 127549.
  • 53
    Sano T, Oyama T, Kashiwabara K, Fukuda T, Nakajima T. Expression status of p16 protein is associated with human papillomavirus oncogenic potential in cervical and genital lesions. Am J Pathol 1998; 153: 17418.
  • 54
    Sano T, Oyama T, Kashiwabara K, Fukuda T, Nakajima T. Immuno-histochemical overexpression of p16 protein associated with intact retinoblastoma protein expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Pathol Int 1998;48: 5805.
  • 55
    Heidebrecht HJ, Buck F, Haas K, Wacker HH, Parwaresch R. Monoclonal antibodies Ki-S3 and Ki-S5 yield new data on the ‘Ki- 67’ proteins. Cell Prolif 1996;29: 4135.
  • 56
    Cromme FV, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ, Uyterlinde A, Kenemans P, Helmerhorst T, Stern PL, van den Brule AJ, Walboomers JM. Analysis of MHC class I and II expression in relation to presence of HPV genotypes in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Br J Cancer 1993;67: 137280.
  • 57
    Saiki RK, Scharf S, Faloona F, Mullis KB, Horn GT, Erlich HA, Arnheim N. Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science 1985;230: 13504.
  • 58
    de Roda Husman AM, Walboomers JM, van den Brule AJ, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ. The use of general primers GP5 and GP6 elongated at their 3′ ends with adjacent highly conserved sequences improves human papillomavirus detection by PCR. J Gen Virol 1995;76: 105762.
  • 59
    Jacobs, M.V., Snijders, P. J., van den Brule, A. J., Helmerhorst, T. J., Meijer, C. J., and Walboomers, J. M. A general primer GP5+/GP6(+)-mediated PCR-enzyme immunoassay method for rapid detection of 14 high-risk and 6 low-risk human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical scrapings. J. Clin. Microbiol., 35: 791-795 (1997).
  • 60
    Munger K, Werness BA, Dyson N, Phelps WC, Harlow E, Howley PM. Complex formation of human papillomavirus E7 proteins with the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product. EMBO J 1989;8: 40994105.
  • 61
    Kelley MJ, Otterson GA, Kaye FJ, Popescu NC, Johnson BE, Dipaolo JA. 1995. CDKN2 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical-carcinoma cell lines. Int J Cancer 1995;63: 22630.
  • 62
    Hirama, T., Miller, C. W., Wilczynski, S. P., and Koeffler, H. P. p16 (CDKN2/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 inhibitor/multiple tumor suppressor-1) gene is not altered in uterine cervical carcinomas or cell lines. Mod. Pathol., 9:26-31 (1996).
  • 63
    Wong YF, Chung TK, Cheung TH, Nobori T, Yim SF, Lai KW, Phil M, Yu AL, Diccianni MB, Li TZ, Chang AM. p16INK4 and p15INK4B alterations in primary gynecologic malignancy. Gynecol Oncol 1997;65: 31924.
  • 64
    Kim JW, Namkoong SE, Ryu SW, Kim HS, Shin JW, Lee JM, Kim DH, Kim IK. Absence of p15INK4B and p16INK4a gene alterations in primary cervical carcinoma tissues and cell lines with human papillomavirus infection. Gynecol Oncol 1998;70: 759.