• 1
    Friedberg EC, Walker GC, Siede W. DNA repair and mutagenesis. Washington DC: ASM Press, 1995.
  • 2
    Berwick M, Vineis P. Markers of DNA repair and susceptibility to cancer in humans: an epidemiologic review. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92: 87497.
  • 3
    Shen MR, Jones IM, Mohrenweiser H. Nonconservative amino acid substitution variants exist at polymorphic frequency in DNA repair in healthy humans. Cancer Res 1998;58: 6048.
  • 4
    Kaur TB, Travaline JM, Gaughan JP, Richie JP, Stellman SD, Lazarus P. Role of polymorphisms in codons 143 and 160 of the O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase gene in lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9: 33942.
  • 5
    Broughton BC, Steingrimsdottir H, Lehmann AR. Five polymorphisms in the coding sequence of the xeroderma pigmentosum group D gene. Mutat Res 1996;362: 20911.
  • 6
    Price EA, Bourne SL, Radbourne R, Lawton PA, Lamerdin J, Thompson LH, Arrand JE. Rare microsatellite polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC3 and XRCC5 associated with cancer in patients of varying radiosensitivity. Somat Cell Mol Genet 1997;23: 23747.
  • 7
    Lunn RM, Helzlsouer KJ, Parshad R, Umbach DM, Harris EL, Sanford KK, Bell DA. XPD polymorphisms: effects on DNA repair proficiency. Carcinogenesis 2000;4: 5515.
  • 8
    Dybdahl M, Vogel U, Frentz G, Wallin H, Nexo BA. Polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XPD: correlations with risk and age at onset of basal cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8: 7781.
  • 9
    Sturgis EM, Castillo EJ, Li L, Zheng R, Eicher SA, Clayman GL, Strom SS, Spitz MR, Wei Q. Polymorphisms of DNA repair gene XRCC1 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Carcinogenesis 1999;20: 21259.
  • 10
    Duell EJ, Wiencke JK, Cheng TJ, Varkonyi A, Zuo ZF, Ashok TD, Mark EJ, et al. Polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1 and ERCC2 and biomarkers of DNA damage in human blood mononuclear cells. Carcinogenesis 2000;21: 96571.
  • 11
    Thompson LH, Brookman KW, Jone NJ, Allen SA, Carrano AV. Molecular cloning of the human XRCC1 gene, which corrects defective DNA strand break repair and sister chromatid exchange. Mol Cell Biol 1990;10: 616071.
  • 12
    Caldecott KW, Aoufouchi S, Johnson P, Shall S. XRCC1 polypeptide interacts with DNA polymerase beta and possibly poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and DNA ligase III is a novel molecular “nick-sensor” in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res 1996;24: 438794.
  • 13
    Liu N, Lamerdin JE, Tebbs RS, Schild D, Tucker JD, Shen MR, Brookman KW, et al. XRCC2 and XRCC3, new human Rad51-family members, promote chromosome stability and protect against DNA cross-links and other damages. Mol Cell 1998;1: 78393.
  • 14
    Tebbs RS, Zhao Y, Tucker JD, Scheerer JB, Siciliano MJ, Hwang M, Liu N, et al. Correction of chromosomal instability and sensitivity to diverse mutagens by a cloned cDNA of the XRCC3 DNA repair gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92: 63548.
  • 15
    Thompson LH, Schild D. The contribution of homologous recombination in preserving genome integrity in mammalian cells. Biochimie 1999;81: 87105.
  • 16
    Bishop D, Ear U, Bhattacharyya A, Calderone C, Beckett M, Weichselbaum RR, Shinohara A. Xrcc3 is required for assembly of Rad51 complexes in vivo. J Biol Chem 1998;273: 214828.
  • 17
    Flejter WL, McDaniel LD, Johns D, Friedberg EC, Schultz RA. Correction of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D mutant cell phenotypes by chromosome and gene transfer: involvement of the human ERCC2 DNA repair gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89: 2615l.
  • 18
    Braithwaite E, Wu X, Wang Z. Repair of DNA lesions induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human cell-free extracts: involvement of two excision repair mechanisms in vitro. Carcinogenesis 1998;19: 123946.
  • 19
    de Laat WL, Jaspers NG, Hoeijmakers JH. Molecular mechanism of nucleotide excision repair. Genes Dev 1999;13: 76885.
  • 20
    Czerniak B, Li L, Chaturvedi V, Ro JY, Johnston DA, Hodges S, Benedict WF. Genetic modeling of human urinary bladder carcinogenesis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2000;27: 392402.
  • 21
    Awata S, Sakagami H, Tozawa K, Sasaki S, Ueda K, Kohri K. Aberration of chromosomes 8 and 11 in bladder cancer as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Urol Res 2000;28: 18590.
  • 22
    Ohgaki K, Minobe K, Kurose K, Iida A, Habuchi T, Ogawa O, Kubota Y, Akimoto M, Emi M. Two target regions of allelic loss on chromosome 9 in urinary-bladder cancer. Jpn J Cancer Res 1999;90: 95764.
  • 23
    Louhelainen J, Wijkstrom H, Hemminki K. Allelic losses demonstrate monoclonality of multifocal bladder tumors. Int J Cancer 2000;87: 5227.
  • 24
    Hartmann A, Rosner U, Schlake G, Dietmaier W, Zaak D, Hofstaedter F, Knuechel R. Clonality and genetic divergence in multifocal low-grade superficial urothelial carcinoma as determined by chromosome 9 and p53 deletion analysis. Lab Invest 2000;80: 70918.
  • 25
    Vineis P, Caporaso N, Cuzick J, Lang M, Malats N, Boffetta P. Metabolic polymorphsims and susceptibility to cancer. IARC Scientific Publication 148, Lyon: IARC, 1999.
  • 26
    Peluso M, Airoldi L, Armelle M, Martone T, Coda R, Malaveille C, Giacomelli G, et al. White blood cell DNA adducts, smoking, and NAT2 and GSTM1 genotypes in bladder cancer: a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7: 3416.
  • 27
    Peluso M, Airoldi L, Magagnotti C, Fiorini L, Munnia A, Hautefeuille A, Malaveille C, Vineis P. White blood cell DNA adducts and fruit and vegetable consumption in bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis 2000;21: 1837.
  • 28
    Bell DA, Taylor JA, Butler MA, Stephens EA, Wiest J, Brubaker LH, Kadlubar FF, Lucier GW. Genotype/phenotype discordance for human N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) reveals a new slow-acetylator allele common in African-Americans. Carcinogenesis 1993;14: 168992.
  • 29
    Underhill PA, Jin L, Lin AA, Mehdi SQ, Jenkins T, Vollrath D, Davis RW, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Oefner PJ. Detection of numerous Y chromosome biallelic polymorphisms by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Genome Res 1997;7: 9961005.
  • 30
    Austin J, Buckland P, Cardno AG, Williams N, Spurlock G, Hoogendoorn B, Zammit S, Jones G, Sanders R, Jones L, McCarthy G, Jones S, Bray NJ, McGuffin P, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC. Comparative sequencing of the proneurotensin gene and association studies in schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 2000;5: 20812.
  • 31
    Sacerdote C, Peluso M, Munnia A, Malaveille C, Vineis P. The choice of controls in a case-control study on WBC-DNA addcuts and metabolic polymorphisms. Biomarkers 2000;5: 30713.
  • 32
    Piegorsch WW, Weinberg CR, Taylor JA. Non-hierarchical logistic models and case-only designs for assessing susceptibility in population-based case-control studies. Stat Med 1994;13: 15362.
  • 33
    Brenneman MA, Weiss AE, Nickoloff JA, Chen DJ. XRCC3 is required for efficient repair of chromosome breaks by homologous recombination. Mutat Res 2000;459: 8997.
  • 34
    Wildschutte M, Franz R, Neumann HG. The tentative identification of DNA-adducts generated by trans-4-dimethylaminostilbene and the 4-trans-acetylaminostilbene in rats. Chem Biol Interact 1990;76: 4762.
  • 35
    Das L, Das SK, Hooberman BH, Chu EH, Sinsheimer JE. Chromosomal aberrations in mouse lymphocytes exposed in vitro and in vivo to benzidine and 5 related aromatic amines. Chem Res Toxicol 1994;320: 6974.
  • 36
    Randerath K, Randerath E, Smith CV, Chang J. Structural origins of bulky oxidative DNA adducts (type II I-compounds) as deduced by oxidation of oligonucleotides of known sequences. Chem Res Toxicol 1996;9: 24754.
  • 37
    Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ. Biometry. San Francisco: Freeman, 1969.