• 1
    Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, Raymond L, Young J. Cancer incidence in five continents. Volume VII. IARC Scientific Publication 143. Lyon: IARC, 1997.
  • 2
    Hsing AW, Tsao L, Devesa SS. International trends and patterns of prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Int J Cancer 2000;85: 607.
  • 3
    Oliver SE, Gunnell D, Donovan JL. Comparison of trends in prostate-cancer mortality in England and Wales and the USA. Lancet 2000;355: 17889.
  • 4
    Mettlin CJ, Murphy GP. Why is the prostate cancer death rate declining in the United States? Cancer 1998;82: 24951.
  • 5
    Farkas A, Schneider D, Perrotti M, Cummings KB, Ward WS. National trends in the epidemiology of prostate cancer, 1973 to 1994: evidence for the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen screening. Urology 1998;52: 4448.
  • 6
    Hankey BF, Feuer EJ, Clegg LX, et al. 1999. Cancer surveillance series: interpreting trends in prostate cancer—part I. Evidence of the effects of screening in recent prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91: 101724.
  • 7
    Majeed A, Babb P, Jones J, Quinn M. Trends in prostate cancer incidence, mortality and survival in England and Wales 1971–1998. BJU Int 2000;85: 105862.
  • 8
    Brewster DH, Fraser LA, Harris V, Black RJ. Rising incidence of prostate cancer in Scotland: increased risk or increased detection? BJU Int 2000;85: 46373.
  • 9
    Meyer F, Moore L, Bairati I, Fradet Y. Downward trend in prostate cancer mortality in Quebec and Canada. J Urol 1999;161: 118991.
  • 10
    WHO. World health statistics annual 1996. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 1998.
  • 11
    Waterhouse J. Cancer incidence in five continents. Lyon: IARC, 1976.
  • 12
    Grulich AE, Swerdlow AJ, dos Santos Silva I, Beral V. Is the apparent rise in cancer mortality in the elderly real? Analysis of changes in certification and coding of cause of death in England and Wales, 1970–1990. Int J Cancer 1995;63: 1648.
  • 13
    Kim H-J, Fay MP, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN. Permutation tests for joinpoint regression with applications to cancer rates. Stat Med 2000;19: 33551.
  • 14
    Lerman PM. Fitting segmented regression models by grid search. Appl Stat 1980;29: 7784.
  • 15
    Albertsen PC, Walters S, Hanley JA. A comparison of cause of death determination in men previously diagnosed with prostate cancer who died in 1985 or 1995. J Urol 2000;163: 51923.
  • 16
    Newschaffer CJ, Otani K, McDonald MK, Penberthy LT. Causes of death in elderly prostate cancer patients and in a comparison nonprostate cancer cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92: 61321.
  • 17
    Svendsen E, Hill RB. Autopsy legislation and practice in various countries. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1987;111: 84650.
  • 18
    Berrino F, Sant M, Verdecchia A, Capocaccia R, Hakulinen T, Estéve J. Survival of cancer patients in Europe, the EUROCARE Study. IARC Scientific Publication 132, Lyon: IARC, 1995.
  • 19
    Etzioni R, Legler JM, Feuer EJ, Merrill RM, Cronin KA, Hankey BF. 1999. Cancer surveillance series: interpreting trends in prostate cancer—part III. Quantifying the link between population prostate-specific antigen testing and recent declines in prostate cancer mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91: 10339.
  • 20
    Chamberlain J, Melia J, Moss S, Brown J. Report prepared for the Health Technology Assessment panel of the NHS Executive on the diagnosis, management, treatment and costs of prostate cancer in England and Wales. Br J Urol 1997;79(Suppl 3): 132.
  • 21
    Anonymous. Immediate versus deferred treatment for advanced prostatic cancer. Br J Urol 1997;79: 23546.
  • 22
    Slevin TJ, Donelly N, Clarkson JP, English DR, Ward JE. Prostate cancer testing: behaviour, motivation and attitudes among western Australian men. Med J Aust 1999;171: 1858.
  • 23
    Smith DP, Armstrong BK. Prostate-specific antigen testing in Australia and association with prostate cancer incidence in New South Wales. Med J Aust 1998;169: 1720.
  • 24
    Menegoz F, Colonna M, Exbrayat C, Mousseau M, Orfeuvre H, Schaerer R. A recent increase in the incidence of prostatic carcinoma in a French population: role of ultrasonography and prostatic specific antigen. Eur J Cancer 1995;31A: 558.
  • 25
    Barchielli A, Crocetti E, Zappa M. Has the PSA wave already crashed upon us? Changes in the epidemiology of prostate cancer from 1985 to 1994 in central Italy. Ann Oncol 1999;10: 3612.
  • 26
    Reissigl A, Horninger W, Fink K, Klocker H, Bartsch G. Prostate carcinoma screening in the county of Tyrol, Austria: experience and results. Cancer 1997;80: 181829.
  • 27
    Ciatto S, Bonardi R, Mazzotta A, Zappa M. Evidence and feasibility of prostate cancer screening. Cancer J 1995;8: 335.
  • 28
    Schröder FH, Denis L, Kirkels W, de Koning HJ, Standaert B. European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Progress report of Antwerp and Rotterdam pilot studies. Cancer 1995;76: 12934.
  • 29
    Bartsch G, Horninger W, Klocker H, Oberaigner W, Severi G, Robertson C, et al. Decrease in prostate cancer mortality following introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening in the federal state of Tyrol, Austria. J Urol 2000;163(suppl): 88.