The detection of acrylamide, classified as a probable human carcinogen, in commonly consumed foods created public health alarm. Thus far, only 2 epidemiologic studies have examined the effect of dietary acrylamide on cancer risk. Presently, we reanalyzed data from a large population-based Swedish case-control study of renal cell cancer. Food frequency data were linked with national food databases on acrylamide content, and daily acrylamide intake was estimated for participants. The risk of renal cell cancer was evaluated for intake of food items with elevated acrylamide levels and for total daily acrylamide dose. Adjusting for potential confounders, there was no evidence that food items with elevated acrylamide, including coffee (ORhighest vs. lowest quartile = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.4–1.1), crisp breads (ORhighest vs. lowest quartile = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.6–1.6) and fried potatoes (ORhighest vs. lowest quartile = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7–1.7), were associated with a higher risk of renal cell cancer risk. Furthermore, there was no association between estimated daily acrylamide intake through diet and cancer risk (ORhighest vs. lowest quartile = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7–1.8; p for trend = 0.8). The results of this study are in line with the 2 previous studies examining dietary acrylamide and suggest there is no association between dietary acrylamide and risk of renal cell cancer. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.