• 1
    Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV, Snijders PJ, Peto J, Meijer CJ, Munoz N. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 1999; 189: 129.
  • 2
    IARC. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Human papillomaviruses. vol. 64. Lyon: IARC, 1995.
  • 3
    Moreno V, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, Shah KV, Walboomers JM, Herrero R, Franceschi S; International Agency for Research on Cancer. Multicentric Cervical Cancer Study Group. Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical cancer in women with human papillomavirus infection: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Lancet 2002; 359: 108592.
  • 4
    Muñoz N, Franceschi S, Bosetti C, Moreno V, Herrero R, Smith JS, Shah KV, Meijer CJ, Bosch FX; International Agency for Research on Cancer. Multicentric Cervical Cancer Study Group. Role of parity and human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Lancet 2002; 359: 1093101.
  • 5
    Smith JS, Muñoz N, Herrero R, Eluf-Neto J, Ngelangel C, Franceschi S, Bosch FX, Walboomers JM, Peeling RW. Evidence for Chlamydia trachomatis as an HPV cofactor in the etiology of cervical cancer in Brazil and the Philippines. J Infect Dis 2002; 185: 32431.
  • 6
    Stamm WE, Holmes KK. Chlamydial infections. In: IsselbackerKJ, ed. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994; 759768.
  • 7
    Kiviat NB, Paavonen JA, Brockway J, Critchlow CW, Brunham RC, Stevens CE, Stamm WE, Kuo CC, DeRouen T, Holmes KK. Cytologic manifestations of cervical and vaginal infections: 1, epithelial and inflammatory cellular changes. JAMA 1985; 253: 98996.
  • 8
    Moscicki AB, Burt VG, Kanowitz S, Darragh T, Shiboski S. The significance of squamous metaplasia in the development of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in young women. Cancer 1999; 85: 113944.
  • 9
    Jha PK, Beral V, Peto J, Hack S, Hermon C, Deacon J, Mant D, Chilvers C, Vessey MP, Pike MC, Müller M, Gissman L. Antibodies to human papillomavirus and to other genital infectious agents and invasive cervical cancer risk. Lancet 1993; 341: 11168.
  • 10
    Anttila T, Saikku P, Koskela P, Bloigu A, Dillner J, Ikaheimo I, Jellum E, Lehtinen M, Lenner P, Hakulinen T, Narvanen A, Pukkala E. Serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis and risk for development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. JAMA 2001; 285: 4751.
  • 11
    Dillner J, Lenner P, Lehtinen M, Eklund C, Heino P, Wiklund F, Hallmans G, Stendahl U. A population-based seroepidemiological study of cervical cancer. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 13441.
  • 12
    Lehtinen M, Dillner J, Knekt P, Luostarinen T, Aromaa A, Kirnbauer R, Koskela P, Paavonen J, Peto R, Schiller JT, Hakama M. Serologically diagnosed infection with human papillomavirus type 16 and risk for subsequent development of cervical carcinoma: nested case-control study. Br Med J 1996; 312: 5379.
  • 13
    Koskela P, Anttila T, Bjorge T, Brunsvig A, Dillner J, Hakama M, Hakulinen T, Jellum E, Lehtinen M, Lenner P, Luostarinen T, Pukkala E. Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a risk factor for invasive cervical cancer. Int J Cancer 2000; 85: 359.
  • 14
    Gravitt PE, Castle PE. Chlamydia trachomatis and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. JAMA 2001; 285: 17034.
  • 15
    Wallin KL, Wiklund F, Luostarinen T, Angstrom T, Anttila T, Bergman F, Hallmans G, Ikaheimo I, Koskela P, Lehtinen M, Stendahl U, Paavonen J. A population-based prospective study of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and cervical carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2002; 101: 3714.
  • 16
    Chaouki N, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, El GB, El GA, Deacon J, Castellsague X, Walboomers JM. The viral origin of cervical cancer in Rabat, Morocco. Int J Cancer 1998; 75: 54654.
  • 17
    Eluf-Neto J, Booth M, Muñoz N, Bosch FX, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer in Brazil. Br J Cancer 1994; 69: 1149.
  • 18
    Santos C, Muñoz N, Klug SJ, Almonte M, Guerrero I, Alvarez M, Velardo C, Galdos O, Castillo M, Walboomers J, Meijer C, Caccres E. HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru. Br J Cancer 2001; 85: 96671.
  • 19
    Muñoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S, Tafur L, Izarzugaza I, Gili M, Viladiu P, Navarro C, Martos C, Ascunce N, Gonzalez LC, Kaldor JM. The causal link between human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer: a population-based case-control study in Colombia and Spain. Int J Cancer 1992; 52: 7439.
  • 20
    Chichareon S, Herrero R, Muñoz N, Bosch FX, Jacobs MV, Deacon J, Santamaria M, Chongsuvivatwong V, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Risk factors for cervical cancer in Thailand: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 507.
  • 21
    Ngelangel C, Muñoz N, Bosch FX, Limson GM, Festin MR, Deacon J, Jacobs MV, Santamaria M, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Causes of cervical cancer in the Philippines: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 439.
  • 22
    Wang SP, Grayston JT. Micro immunofluorescence antibody responses in Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a Review. In: MardhPA, HolmesKK, OrielJD, PiotP, SchacterJ eds. Chlamydial infections: proceedings of the 5th International symposium on human chlamydial infections, held in Lund, Sweden, 15–19 June, 1982. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical Press, 1982.
  • 23
    de Sanjosé S, Muñoz N, Bosch FX, Reimann K, Pedersen NS, Orfila J, Ascunce N, Gonzalez LC, Tafur L, Gili M, Lette I, Viladiu P. Sexually transmitted agents and cervical neoplasia in Colombia and Spain. Int J Cancer 1994; 56: 35863.
  • 24
    Ashley RL. Type-specific antibodies to HSV-1 and -2: review of methodology. Herpes 1998; 5: 338.
  • 25
    Smith JS, Herrero R, Muñoz N, Eluf-Neto J, Ngelangel C, Bosch FX, Ashley RL. Prevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among middle-aged women in Brazil and the Philippines. Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28: 18794.
  • 26
    Breslow NE, Day NE, Davis W. Statistical methods in cancer research. The analysis of case-control studies. vol. 1. Lyon: IARC, 1980.
  • 27
    Mol BW, van der Veen F, Bossuyt PM. Chlamydia antibody titres. Hum Reprod 1999; 14: 26870.
  • 28
    Land JA, Evers JL, Goossens VJ. How to use Chlamydia antibody testing in subfertility patients. Hum Reprod 1998; 13: 10948.
  • 29
    Peeling RW, Kimani J, Plummer F, Maclean I, Cheang M, Bwayo J, Brunham RC. Antibody to chlamydial hsp60 predicts an increased risk for chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. J Infect Dis 1997; 175: 11538.
  • 30
    Eckert LO, Hawes SE, Wolner-Hanssen P, Money DM, Peeling RW, Brunham RC, Stevens CE, Eschenbach DA, Stamm WE. Prevalence and correlates of antibody to chlamydial heat shock protein in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics and women with confirmed pelvic inflammatory disease. J Infect Dis 1997; 175: 14538.
  • 31
    Brunham RC, Peeling RW. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens: role in immunity and pathogenesis. Infect Agents Dis 1994; 3: 21833.
  • 32
    Smith JS, Muñoz N, Franceschi S, Eluf-Neto J, Herrero R, Peeling RW. Chlamydia trachomatis and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 285: 1704.
  • 33
    Puolakkainen M, Vesterinen E, Purola E, Saikku P, Paavonen J. Persistence of chlamydial antibodies after pelvic inflammatory disease. J Clin Microbiol 1986; 23: 9248.
  • 34
    Ngeow YF. Limitations of serodiagnosis in chlamydial genital tract infections. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1996; 25: 3004.
  • 35
    Felley-Bosco E. Role of nitric oxide in genotoxicity: implication for carcinogenesis. Cancer Metastasis Rev 1998; 17: 2537.
  • 36
    Castle PE, Hillier SL, Rabe LK, Hildesheim A, Herrero R, Bratti MC, Sherman ME, Burk RD, Rodriguez AC, Alfaro M, Hutchinson ML, Morales J. An association of cervical inflammation with high-grade cervical neoplasia in women infected with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 10217.
  • 37
    Fan T, Lu H, Hu H, Shi L, McClarty GA, Nance DM, Greenberg AH, Zhong G. Inhibition of apoptosis in chlamydia-infected cells: blockade of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase activation. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 48796.
  • 38
    Prozialeck WC, Fay MJ, Lamar PC, Pearson CA, Sigar I, Ramsey KH. Chlamydia trachomatis disrupts N-cadherin-dependent cell-cell junctions and sequesters beta-catenin in human cervical epithelial cells. Infect Immun 2002; 70: 260513.
  • 39
    Dillner J, Silins I, Ryd W, Wadell G, Hansson BG, Rylander E, for the Sweden Screen Study. History of Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a determinant of HPV DNA persistence: a population-based cohort study. Proceedings of the 20th International Papillomavirus Conference, 2002.
  • 40
    World Health Organization. Global prevalence and incidence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections: overview and estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001.
  • 41
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases surveillance 2000 supplement: Chlamydia prevalence monitoring project. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services, 2001.