The effect of constant illumination on the development of spontaneous tumors in female CBA mice was investigated. Fifty female CBA mice starting from the age of 2 months were kept under standard light/dark regimen (12 hr light:12hr dark; LD) and 50 CBA mice of similar age were kept under constant illumination (24 hr a day, 2,500 Lux, LL). Exposure to the LL regimen decreased food consumption but did not influence body weight, significantly accelerated age-related disturbances in estrous function, and was followed by a significant increase in spontaneous tumor incidence in female CBA mice. Tumor incidence as well as the number of total or malignant tumors was significantly increased in the LL group compared to the LD group (p < 0.001). The incidence of lung adenocarcinomas, leukemias and hepatocarcinomas was 7/50; 6/50 and 4/50 in the LL group and 1/50; 0/50 and 0/50 in the LD group. Mice from the LL groups had shorter life spans then those from the LD group. The data demonstrate, for the first time, that exposure to constant illumination was followed by increases in the incidence of spontaneous lung carcinoma, leukemias and hepatocarcinoma in female CBA mice. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.