Epigenetic change such as DNA methylation is one important mechanism for regulating gene expression as genetic change, such as mutation or loss of heterozygosity. Methylation of cancer-related genes has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Using methylated CpG island amplification (MCA)/representational difference analysis (RDA), we identified four CpG islands in neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2), Protocadherine Flamingo1 and MFPC (Methylated Fragments in Prostate Cancer) 7 and 8. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that 2 regions of NTRK2 as well as MFPC7 and MFPC8 were aberrantly methylated in prostate cancer cell lines, and COBRA showed that 48 (76.24%), 37 (58.7%) and 14 (22.2%) of 63 prostate cancer tissues were methylated, respectively, for these sites. On the other hand, none of 13 benign prostate samples were methylated, except for 1 (7.7%) with NTRK2. For NTRK2, mRNA expression was negative in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and DU145) but was recovered on a methyltransferase inhibitor (5-Aza-CdR) treatment. The role of NTRK2 within NTRK remains unclear. Our results suggest that these 3 hypermethylated DNA fragments also may be markers of prostate cancer detection. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.