• 1
    Fearon ER, Vogelstein BA. genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Cell 1990; 61: 75967.
  • 2
    Markowitz SD, Roberts AB. Tumor suppressor activity of the TGF-βeta pathway in human cancers. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 1996; 7: 93102.
  • 3
    Ito Y. Molecular basis of tissue-specific gene expression mediated by the runt domain transcription factor PEbP2/CbF. Genes Cells 1999; 4: 68596.
  • 4
    Silva FP, Morolli B, Storlazzi CT, Anelli L, Wessels H, Bezrookove V, Kluin-Nelemans HC, Giphart-Gassler M. Identification of RUNX1/AML1 as a classical tumor suppressor gene. Oncogene 2003; 22: 53847.
  • 5
    Baxter EW, Blyth K, Cameron ER, Neil JC. Selection for loss of p53 function in T-cell lymphomagenesis is alleviated by Moloney murine leukemia virus infection in myc transgenic mice. J Virol 2001; 75: 97908.
  • 6
    Blyth K, Terry A, Mackay N, Vaillant F, Bell M, Cameron ER, Neil JC, Stewart M. Runx2: a novel oncogenic effector revealed by in vivo complementation and retroviral tagging. Oncogene 2001; 20: 295302.
  • 7
    Guo WH, Weng LQ, Ito K, Chen LF, Nakanishi, H, Tatematsu, M, Ito, Y. Inhibition of growth of mouse gastric cancer cells by Runx3, a novel tumor suppressor. Oncogene 2002; 21: 83515.
  • 8
    Li QL, Ito K, Sakakura C, Fukamachi H, Inoue K, Chi XZ, Lee KY, Nomura S, Lee CW, Han SB, Kim H, Kim M, et al. Causal relationship between the loss of RUNX3 expression and gastric cancer. Cell 2002; 109: 11324.
  • 9
    Waki T, Tamura G, Sato M, Terashima M, Nishizuka S, Motoyama T. Promoter methylation status of DAP-kinase and RUNX3 genes in neoplastic and non-neoplastic gastric epithelia. Cancer Sci 2003; 94: 3604.
  • 10
    Wada M, Yazumi S, Takaishi S, Hasegawa K, Sawada M, Tanaka H, Ida H, Sakakura C, Ito K, Ito Y, Chiba T. Frequent loss of RUNX3 gene expression in human bile duct and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Oncogene 2004; 23: 24017.
  • 11
    Zhang Y, Derynck R. Transcriptional regulation of the transforming growth factor-beta-inducible mouse germ line Ig alpha constant region gene by functional cooperation of Smad, CREB, and AML family members. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 1697985.
  • 12
    Koi M, Umar A, Chauhan DP, Cherian SP, Carethers JM, Kunkel TA, Boland CR. Human chromosome 3 corrects mismatch repair deficiency and microsatellite instability and reduces N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine tolerance in colon tumor cells with homozygous hMLH1 mutation. Cancer Res, 1994; 54: 430812.
  • 13
    Goel A, Arnold CN, Niedzwiecki D, Chang DK, Ricciardiello L, Carethers JM, Dowell JM, Wasserman L, Compton C, Mayer RJ, Bertagnolli MM, Boland, CR. Characterization of sporadic colon cancer by patterns of genomic instability. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 160814.
  • 14
    Yashiro M, Carethers JM, Laghi L, Saito K, Slezak P, Jaramillo E, Rubio C, Koizumi K, Hirakawa K, Boland CR. Genetic pathways in the evolution of morphologically distinct colorectal neoplasms. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 267683.
  • 15
    Boland CR, Thibodeau SN, Hamilton SR, Sidransky D, Eshleman JR, Burt RW, Meltzer SJ, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Fodde R, Ranzani GN, Srivastava SA. National Cancer Institute Workshop on Microsatellite Instability for cancer detection and familial predisposition: development of international criteria for the determination of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 524857.
  • 16
    Chang DK, Ricciardiello L, Goel A, Chang CL, Boland CR. Steady-state regulation of the human DNA mismatch repair system. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 29178.
  • 17
    Herman JG, Graff JR, Myohanen S, Nelkin BD, Baylin SB. Methylation-specific PCR: a novel PCR assay for methylation status of CpG islands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 98216.
  • 18
    Bangsow C, Rubins N, Glusman G, Bernstein Y, Negreanu V, Goldenberg D, Lotem J, Ben Asher E, Lancet D, Levanon D, Groner Y. The RUNX3 gene: sequence, structure and regulated expression. Gene 2001; 279: 22132.
  • 19
    Baylin SB, Herman JG, Graff JR, Vertino PM, Issa JP. Alterations in DNA methylation: a fundamental aspect of neoplasia. Adv Cancer Res 1998; 72: 14196,
  • 20
    Toyota M, Issa JP. CpG island methylator phenotypes in aging and cancer. Semin Cancer Biol 1999; 9: 34957.
  • 21
    Young J, Simms LA, Biden KG, Wynter C, Whitehall V, Karamatic R, George J, Goldblatt J, Walpole I, Robin SA, Borten MM, Stitz R, et al. Features of colorectal cancers with high-level microsatellite instability occurring in familial and sporadic settings: parallel pathways of tumorigenesis. Am J Pathol 2001; 159: 210716.
  • 22
    Toyota M, Ahuja N, Ohe-Toyota M, Herman JG, Baylin SB, Issa JP. CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96: 86816.
  • 23
    Esteller M, Corn PG, Baylin SB, Herman JG. A gene hypermethylation profile of human cancer. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 32259.
  • 24
    Muleris M, Salmon RJ, Dutrillaux B. Cytogenetics of colorectal adenocarcinomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1990; 46: 14356.
  • 25
    Vogelstein B, Fearon ER, Kern SE, Hamilton SR, Preisinger AC, Nakamura Y, White R. Allelotype of colorectal carcinomas. Science 1989; 244: 20711.
  • 26
    Praml C, Finke LH, Herfarth C, Schlag P, Schwab M, Amler L. Deletion mapping defines different regions in 1p34.2-pter that may harbor genetic information related to human colorectal cancer. Oncogene 1995; 11: 135762.
  • 27
    Ezaki T, Yanagisawa A, Ohta K, Aiso S, Watanabe M, Hibi T, Kato Y, Nakajima T, Ariyama T, Inazawa J, Nakamura Y, Horii A. Deletion mapping on chromosome 1p in well-differentiated gastric cancer. Br J Cancer 1996; 73: 4248.
  • 28
    Jones PA, Laird PW. Cancer epigenetics comes of age. Nat Genet 1999; 21: 1637.
  • 29
    Hanai, J, Chen LF, Kanno T, Ohtani-Fujita N, Kim WY, Guo WH, Imamura T, Ishidou Y, Fukuchi M, Shi MJ, Stavnezer J, Kawabata M, et al. Interaction and functional cooperation of PEbP2/CbF with Smads. Synergistic induction of the immunoglobulin germline Calpha promoter. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 3157782.
  • 30
    Gayet J, Zhou XP, Duval A, Rolland S, Hoang JM, Cottu P, Hamelin R. Extensive characterization of genetic alterations in a series of human colorectal cancer cell lines. Oncogene 2001; 20: 502532.
  • 31
    Suter CM, Norrie M, Ku SL, Cheong KF, Tomlinson I, Ward RL. CpG island methylation is a common finding in colorectal cancer cell lines. Br J Cancer 2003; 88: 4139.
  • 32
    Oh JH, Ku JL, Yoon KA, Kwon HJ, Kim WH, Park HS, Yeo KS, Song SY, Chung JK, Park JG. Establishment and characterization of 12 human colorectal-carcinoma cell lines. Int J Cancer 1999; 81: 90210.