• 1
    PotterJD, ed. Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: World Cancer Research Fund in association with American Institute for Cancer Research, 1997. 5067.
  • 2
    Vineis P, Alavanja M, Buffler P, Fontham E, Franceschi S, Gao YT, Gupta PC, Hackshaw A, Matos E, Samet J, Sitas J, Smith J, et al. Tobacco and cancer: recent epidemiological evidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96: 99106.
  • 3
    Cai L, Zheng ZL, Zhang ZF. Risk factors for the gastric cardia cancer: a case-control study in Fujian Province. World J Gastroenterol 2003; 9: 2148.
  • 4
    Minami Y, Tateno H. Associations between cigarette smoking and the risk of four leading cancers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan: a multi-site case-control study. Cancer Sci 2003; 94: 5407.
  • 5
    Brenner H, Arndt V, Bode G, Stegmaier C, Ziegler H, Stümer T. Risk of gastric cancer among smokers infected with Helicobacter pylori. Int J Cancer 2002; 98: 4469.
  • 6
    Inoue M, Ito LS, Tajima K, Yamamura Y, Kodera Y, Takezaki T, Hamajima N, Hirose K, Kuroishi T, Tominaga S. Height, weight, menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of gastric cancer among Japanese postmenopausal women: analysis by subsite and histologic subtype. Int J Cancer 2002; 97: 8338.
  • 7
    Kikuchi S, Nakajima T, Kobayashi O, Yamazaki T, Kikuichi M, Mori K, Oura S, Watanabe H, Nagawa H, Otani R, Okamoto N, Kurosawa M, et al. U-shaped effect of drinking and linear effect of smoking on risk for stomach cancer in Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res 2002; 93: 9539.
  • 8
    Simán JH, Forsgren A, Berglund G, Flóren CH. Tobacco smoking increases the risk for gastric adenocarcinoma among Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001; 36: 20813.
  • 9
    Wu AH, Wan P, Bernstein L. A multiethnic population-based study of smoking, alcohol and body size and risk of adenocarcinomas of the stomach and esophagus (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001; 12: 72132.
  • 10
    Chen MJ, Chiou YY, Wu DC, Wu SL. Lifestyle habits and gastric cancer in a hospital-based case-control study in Taiwan. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 32429.
    Direct Link:
  • 11
    Lagergren J, Bergström R, Lindgren A, Nyrén O. The role of tobacco, snuff and alcohol use in the aetiology of cancer of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. Int J Cancer 2000; 85: 3406.
  • 12
    Chow WH, Swanson CA, Lissowska J, Groves FD, Sobin LH, Nasierowska-Guttmejer A, Radziszewski J, Regula J, Hsing AW, Jagannatha S, Zatonski W, Blot WJ. Risk of stomach cancer in relation to consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee in Warsaw, Poland. Int J Cancer 1999; 81: 8716.
  • 13
    Huang X, Tajima K, Hamajima N, Inoue M, Takezaki T, Kuroishi T, Hirose K, Tominaga S, Xiang J, Tokudome S. Effect of life styles on the risk of subsite-specific gastric cancer in those with and without family history. J Epidemiol 1999; 9: 405.
  • 14
    Inoue M, Tajima K, Yamamura Y, Hamajima N, Hirose K, Nakamura S, Kodera Y, Kito T, Tominaga S. Influence of habitual smoking on gastric cancer by histologic subtype. Int J Cancer 1999; 81: 3943.
  • 15
    Ye W, Ekstörm AM, Hansson LE, Bergström R, Nyrén O. Tobacco, alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer by sub-site and histologic type. Int J Cancer 1999; 83: 2239.
  • 16
    Komoto K, Haruma K, Kamada T, Tanaka S, Yoshihara M, Sumii K, Kajiyama G, Talley NJ. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric neoplasia: correlations with histological gastritis and tumor histology. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 12716.
    Direct Link:
  • 17
    De Stefani E, Boffetta P, Carzoglio J, Mendilaharsu S, Deneo-Pellegrini H. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking as risk factors for stomach cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Cancer Causes Control 1998; 9: 3219.
  • 18
    Gammon MD, Schoenberg JB, Ahsan H, Risch HA, Vaughan TL, Chow WH, Rotterdam H, West AB, Dubrow R, Stanford JL, Mayne ST, Farrow DC, et al. Tobacco, alcohol, and socioeconomic status and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 127784.
  • 19
    Gajalakshmi CK, Shanta V. Lifestyle and risk of stomach cancer: a hospital-based case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 1996; 25: 114653.
  • 20
    Ji BT, Chow WH, Yang G, McLaughlin JK, Gao RN, Zheng W, Shu XO, Jin F, Fraumeni JF, Gao YT. The influence of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and green tea consumption on the risk of carcinoma of the cardia and distal stomach in Shanghai, China. Cancer 1996; 77: 244957.
  • 21
    Vaughan TL, Davis S, Kristal A, Thomas DB. Obesity, alcohol, and tobacco as risk factors for cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia: adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995; 4: 8592.
  • 22
    Hannson LE, Baron J, Nyrén O, Bergström R, Wolk A, Adami HO. Tobacco, alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer. A population-based case-control study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 1994; 57: 2631.
  • 23
    Inoue M, Tajima K, Hirose K, Kuroishi T, Gao CM, Kitoh T. Life-style and subsite of gastric cancer: joint effect of smoking and drinking habits. Int J Cancer 1994; 56: 4949.
  • 24
    Kabat GC, Ng SK, Wynder EL. Tobacco, alcohol intake, and diet in relation to adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Cancer Causes Control 1993; 4: 12332.
  • 25
    Dockerty JD, Marshall S, Fraser J, Pearce N. Stomach cancer in New Zealand: time trends, ethic group differences and a cancer registry-based case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 1991; 20: 4553.
  • 26
    Saha SK. Smoking habits and carcinoma of the stomach: a case-control study. Jpn J Cancer Res 1991; 82: 497502.
  • 27
    Tominaga K, Koyama Y, Sasagawa M, Hiroki M, Nagai M. A case-control study of stomach cancer and its genesis in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and familial cancer history. Jpn J Cancer Res 1991; 82: 9749.
  • 28
    Yu GP, Hsieh CC. Risk factors for stomach cancer: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai. Cancer Causes Control 1991; 2: 16974.
  • 29
    Kato I, Tominaga S, Ito Y, Kobayashi S, Yoshii Y, Matsuura A, Kameya A, Kano T. A comparative case-control analysis of stomach cancer and atrophic gastritis. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 655964.
  • 30
    De Stefani E, Correa P, Fierro L, Carzoglio J, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Zavala D. Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking in gastric cancer. A case-control study. Rev Epidem Saté Publ 1990; 38: 297307.
  • 31
    Wu-Williams AH, Yu MC, Mack TM. Life-style, workplace, and stomach cancer by subsite in young men of Los Angeles County. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 256976.
  • 32
    Unakami M, Hara M, Fukuchi S, Akiyama H. Cancer of the gastric cardia and the habit of smoking. Acta Pathol Jpn 1989; 39: 4204.
  • 33
    Hu J, Zhang S, Jia E, Wang Q, Liu S, Liu Y, Wu Y, Cheng Y. Diet and cancer of the stomach: a case-control study in China. Int J Cancer 1988; 41: 3315.
  • 34
    Kono S, Ikeda M, Tokudome S, Kuratsune M. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Northern Kyushu, Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res 1988; 79: 106774.
  • 35
    You WC, Blot WJ, Chang YS, Ershow AG, Yang ZT, An Q, Henderson B, Xu GW, Fraumeni JF, Wang TG. Diet and high risk of stomach cancer in Shandong, China. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 351823.
  • 36
    Correa P, Fontham E, Pickle LW, Chen V, Lin Y, Haenszel W. Dietary determinants of gastric cancer in South Louisiana inhabitants. J Natl Cancer Inst 1985; 75: 64554.
  • 37
    Hoshino H, Hirayama T, Arimoto H, Maruyama K, Kitaoka H, Yamada T, Hitota T, Watanabe S, Tanaka M, Suzuki S, Aihara K. Gastric cancer risk factors: a case-control study based on medical records. Jpn J Cancer Res 1985; 76: 84650.
  • 38
    Risch HA, Jain M, Choi NW, Fodor JG, Pfeiffer CJ, Howe GR, Harrison LW, Craib KJP, Miller AB. Dietary factors and the incidence of cancer of stomach. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 94759.
  • 39
    Hoey J, Montvernay C, Lambert R. Wine and tobacco: risk factors for gastric cancer in France. Am J Epidemiol 1981; 113: 66874.
  • 40
    Williams RR, Horn JW. Association of cancer sites with tobacco and alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status of patients: interview study from the Third National Cancer Survey. J Natl Cancer Inst 1977; 58: 52547.
  • 41
    Haenszel W, Kurihara M, Segi M, Lee RKC. Stomach cancer among Japanese in Hawaii. J Natl Cancer Inst 1972; 49: 96988.
  • 42
    Staszewski J. Smoking and cancer of the alimentary tract in Poland. Br J Cancer 1969; 23: 24753.
  • 43
    Trédaniel J, Boffetta P, Buiatti E, Saracci R, Hirsch A. Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer: review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 1997; 72: 56573.
  • 44
    Kim HJ, Chang WK, Kim MK, Lee SS, Choi BY. Dietary factors and gastric cancer in Korea: a case-control study. Int J Cancer 2002; 97: 5315.
  • 45
    Nishimoto IN, Hamada GS, Kowalski LP, Rodrigues JG, Iriya K, Sasazuki S, Hanaoka T, Tsugane S. Risk factors for stomach cancer in Brazil (I): a case-control study among Non-Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2002; 32: 27783.
  • 46
    Rao DN, Ganesh B, Dinshaw KA, Mohandas KM. A case-control study of stomach cancer in Mumbai, India. Int J Cancer 2002; 99: 72731.
  • 47
    Muñoz N, Plummer M, Vivas J, Moreno V, De Sanjosé S, Lopez G, Oliver W. A case-control study of gastric cancer in Venezuela. Int J Cancer 2001; 93: 41723.
  • 48
    Zaridze D, Borisova E, Maximovitch D, Chkhikvadze V. Alcohol consumption, smoking and risk of gastric cancer: case-control study from Moscow, Russia. Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 36371.
  • 49
    Ye WM, Yi YN, Luo RX, Zhou TS, Lin RT, Chen GD. Diet and gastric cancer: a case-control study in Fujian Province, China. World J Gastroenterol 1998; 4: 5168.
  • 50
    Muñoz SE, Ferratoni M, La Vecchia C, Decarli A. Gastric cancer risk factors in subjects with family history. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6: 13740.
  • 51
    Murata M, Takayama K, Choi BCK, Pak AWP. A nested case-control study on alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 1996; 20: 55765.
  • 52
    Zhang ZF, Kurts RC, Sun M, Karpeh M Jr, Yu GP, Gargon N, Fein JS, Georgopoulos SK, Harlap S. Adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia: medical conditions, tobacco, alcohol, and socioeconomic factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996; 5: 7618.
  • 53
    Guo W, Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, Liu BQ, Wang W, Wu YP, Zheng W, Dawsey SM, Li B. A nested case-control study of oesophageal and stomach cancers in the Linxian nutrition intervention trial. Int J Epidemiol 1994; 23: 44450.
  • 54
    Jedrychowski W, Boeing H, Wahrendorf J, Poplela T, Tobiasz-Adamczyk B, Kulig J. Vodka consumption, tobacco smoking and risk of gastric cancer in Poland. Int J Epidemiol 1993; 22: 60613.
  • 55
    Agudo A, Gonzales CA, Marcos G, Sanz M, Saigi E, Verge J, Boleda M, Ortego J. Consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tobacco, and gastric cancer in Spain. Cancer Causes Control 1992; 3: 13743.
  • 56
    Gray JR, Coldman AJ, MacDonald WC. Cigarette and alcohol use in patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia or lower esophagus. Cancer 1992; 69: 222731.
  • 57
    Hoshiyama Y, Sasaba T. A case-control study of stomach cancer and its relation to diet, cigarettes, and alcohol consumption in Saitama prefecture, Japan. Cancer Causes Control 1992; 3: 4418.
  • 58
    Palli D, Bianchi S, Decarli A, Cipriani F, Avellini C, Cocco P, Falcini F, Puntoni R, Russo A, Vindigni C, Fraumeni JF Jr, Blot WJ, et al. A case-control study of cancers of the gastric cardia in Italy. Br J Cancer 1992; 65: 2636.
  • 59
    Boeing H, Frentzel-Beyme R, Berger M, Berndt V, Göres W, Körner M, Lohmeier R, Menarcher A, Männl HFK, Meinhardt M, Müller R, Ostermeier H, et al. Case-control study on stomach cancer in Germany. Int J Cancer 1991; 47: 85864.
  • 60
    Buiatti E, Palli D, Bianchi S, Decarli A, Amadori D, Avellini C, Cipriani F, Cocco P, Giacosa A, Lorenzini L, Marubini E, Puntoni R, et al. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy. III. Risk patterns by histologic type. Int J Cancer 1991; 48: 36974.
  • 61
    Demirer T, Icli F, Uzunalimoglu O, Kucuk O. Diet and stomach cancer incidence. A case-control study in Turkey. Cancer 1990; 65: 23448.
  • 62
    Buiatti E, Palli D, Decarli A, Amadori D, Avellini C, Bianchi S, Biserni R, Cipriani F, Cocco P, Giacosa A, Marubini E, Puntoni R, et al. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 6116.
  • 63
    Ferraroni M, Negri E, La Vecchia C, D'Avanzo B, Francheschi S. Socioeconomic indicators, tobacco and alcohol in the aetiology of digestive tract neoplasms. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: 55662.
  • 64
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, Decarli A, D'Avanzo B, Franceschi S. A case- control study of diet and gastric cancer in Northern Italy. Int J Cancer 1987; 40: 4849.
  • 65
    Jedrychowski W, Wahrendorf J, Popiela T, Rachtan J. A case-control study of dietary factors and stomach cancer risk in Poland. Int J Cancer 1986; 37: 83742.
  • 66
    Tajima K, Tominaga S. Dietary habits and gastro-intestinal cancers: a comparative case-control study of stomach and large intestinal cancers in Nagoya, Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res 1985; 76: 70516.
  • 67
    Trichopoulos D, Ouranos G, Day NE, Tzonou A, Manousos O, Papadimitriou C, Trichopoulos A. Diet and cancer of the stomach: a case-control study in Greece. Int J Cancer 1985; 36: 2917.
  • 68
    Ames RG, Gamble JF. Lung cancer, stomach cancer, and smoking status among coal miners. A preliminary test of a hypothesis. Scand J Work Environ Health 1983; 9: 4438.
  • 69
    Tuyns AJ, Péquignot G, Gignoux M, Valla A. Cancers of the digestive tract, alcohol and tobacco. Int J Cancer 1982; 30: 911.
  • 70
    Armijo R, Orellana M, Medina E, Coulson AH, Sayre JW, Detels R. Epidemiology of gastric cancer in Chile. I. Case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 1981; 10: 536.
  • 71
    Haenzel W, Kurihara M, Locke FB, Shimizu K, Segi M. Stomach cancer in Japan. J Natl Cancer Inst 1976; 56: 26574.
  • 72
    Williams RHP, Smith J, Cole TJ, Craven JL. Dietary and smoking habits in gastric cancer: a detailed study of 64 cases and controls. Gut 1975; 16: 843.
  • 73
    Wynder EL, Kmet J, Dungal N, Segi M. An epidemiological investigation of gastric cancer. Cancer 1963; 16: 14619.
  • 74
    Schwartz D, Flamant R, Lellouch J, Denoix PF. Results of a French survey on the role of tobacco, particularly inhalation, in different cancer sites. J Natl Cancer Inst 1961; 26: 1085108.
  • 75
    Kraus AS, Levin ML, Gerhardt PR. A study of occupational associations with gastric cancer. Amer J Publ Health 1957; 47: 96170.
  • 76
    Chao A, Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Jacobs EJ, McCullough ML, Calle EE. Cigarette smoking, use of other tobacco products and stomach cancer mortality in US adults: the Cancer Prevention Study II. Int J Cancer 2002; 101: 3809.
  • 77
    Sasazuki S, Sasaki S, Tsugane S. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and subsequent gastric cancer risk by subsite and histologic type. Int J Cancer 2002; 101: 5606.
  • 78
    McLaughlin JK, Hrubec Z, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr. Smoking and cancer mortality among U.S. veterans: a 26-year follow-up. Int J Cancer 1995; 60: 1903.
  • 79
    Kato I, Tominaga S, Matsumoto K. A prospective study of stomach cancer among a rural Japanese population: a 6-year survey. Jpn J Cancer 1992; 83: 56875.
  • 80
    Nomura A, Grove JS, Stemmermann GN, Severson RK. A prospective study of stomach cancer and its relation to diet, cigarettes, and alcohol consumption. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 62731.
  • 81
    Kneller RW, McLaughlin JK, Bjelke E, Schuman LM, Blot WJ, Wacholder S, Gridley G, CoChien HT, Fraumeni JF Jr. A cohort study of stomach cancer in a high-risk American population. Cancer 1991; 68: 6728.
  • 82
    Kono S, Ikeda M, Tokudome S, Nishizumi M, Kuratsune M. Cigarette smoking, alcohol and cancer mortality: a cohort study of male Japanese physicians. Jpn J Cancer Res 1987; 78: 13238.
  • 83
    Pollack ES, Nomura AMY, Heilbrun LK, Stemmermann GN, Green SB. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and cancer. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 61721.
  • 84
    Hirayama T. Life-style and mortality: a large-scale census-based cohort study in Japan. In: HeidelbergJW, ed. Contributions to epidemiology and biostatistics, vol. 6. Basel: Karger, 1990.
  • 85
    Mizoue T, Tokui N, Nishisaka K, Nishisaka S, Ogimoto I, Ikeda M, Yoshimura T. Prospective study on the relation of cigarette smoking with cancer of the liver and stomach in an endemic region. Int J Epidemiol 2000; 29: 2327.
  • 86
    Yuan JM, Ross RK, Wang XL, Gao YT, Henderson BE, Yu MC. Morbidity and mortality in relation to cigarette smoking in Shanghai, China: a prospective male cohort study. JAMA 1996; 275: 164656.
  • 87
    Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K, Gray R, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors. Br Med J 1994; 309: 90118.
  • 88
    Kahn HA. The Dorn study of smoking and mortality among US veterans: report on 8.5 years of observation. Nat Cancer Inst Monogr 1966; 19: 1125.
  • 89
    Hammond EC. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. Nat Cancer Inst Monogr 1966; 19: 127204.
  • 90
    Koizumi Y, Tsubono Y, Nakaya N, Nishino Y, Shibuya D, Matsuoka H, Tsuji I. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: pooled analysis of two prospective studies in Japan. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarker Prev 2003; 12: 4723.
  • 91
    Tsubono Y, Nishino Y, Komatsu S, Chung-Cheng H, Kanemura S, Tsuji I, Nakatsuka H, Fukao A, Satoh H, Hisamichi S. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer in Japan. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 6326.
  • 92
    Fukao A, Tsubono Y, Komatsu S, Tsuji I, Minami Y, Hisamichi S, Hosokawa T, Kawamura M, Takao A, Sugawara N, Ikeda T, Nishikori M. A cohort study on the relation of lifestyle, personality and biologic markers to cancer in Miyagi, Japan: study design, response rate and profiles of the cohort subjects. J Epidemiol 1995; 5: 1537.
  • 93
    Takano A, Okuno Y. Japan, Miyagi Prefecture. In: ParkinDM, WhelanSL, FerlayJ, RaymondL, YoungJ, eds. Cancer incidence in five continents. International Agency for Research on Cancer, vol. 7. Lyon: IARC Scientific Publications no. 143, 1997. 3869, 1136.
  • 94
    Lauren P. The two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: diffuse and so-called intestinal-type carcinoma. Act Pathol Microbial Immunol Scand 1995; 64: 3149.
  • 95
    Petitti DB. Meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost-effectiveness analysis: methods for quantitative synthesis in medicine. In: JenniferLK, MechaelGM, PaulDS, MartinPV, eds. Monographs in epidemiology and biostatistics. Oxford: Oxford university press, 1994. 90114.
  • 96
    González CA, Pera G, Agudo A, Palli D, Krogh V, Vineis P, Tumino R, Panico S, Berglund G, Simán H, Nyrén O, Agren A. Smoking and the risk of gastric cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer 2003; 107: 62934.
  • 97
    Asaka M, Takeda H, Sugiyama T, Kato M. What role does Helicobacter pylori play in gastric cancer? Gastroenterology 1997; 113( suppl): 5660.