• 1
    Lee AWM, Foo W, Mang O, Sze WM, Chappell R, Lau WH, Ko WM. Changing epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Hong Kong over a 20-year period (1980–99): an encouraging reduction in both incidence and mortality. Int J Cancer 2003; 105: 6805.
  • 2
    Herman JG, Baylin SB. Gene silencing in cancer in association with promoter hypermethylation. N Engl J Med 2003; 21: 204254.
  • 3
    Lo KW, Cheung ST, Leung SF, van Hasselt A, Tsang YS, Mak KF, Chung YF, Woo JKS, Lee JCK, Huang DP. Hypermethylation of the p16 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 27215.
  • 4
    Lo KW, Kwong J, Hui ABY, Chan SYY, To KF, Chan ASC, Chow LSN, Teo PML, Johnson PJ, Huang DP. High frequency of promoter hypermethylation of RASSF1A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 387781.
  • 5
    Kwong J, Lo KW, To KF, Teo PM, Johnson PJ, Huang DP. Promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8: 1317.
  • 6
    Lo KW, Tsang YS, Kwong J, To KF, Teo PM, Huang DP. Promoter hypermethylation of the EDNRB gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2002; 98: 6515.
  • 7
    Hui ABY, Lo KW, Kwong J, Lam ECW, Chan SYY, Chow LSN, Chan ASC, Teo PML, Huang DP. Epigenetic inactivation of TSLC1 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Mol Carcinogenesis 2003; 38: 1708.
  • 8
    Blomhoff R, Green MH, Green JB, Berg T, Norum KR. 1991. Vitamin A metabolism: new perspectives on absorption, transport, and storage. Physiol Rev 1991; 71: 95190.
  • 9
    Balmer JE, Blomhoff R. Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid. J Lipid Res 2002; 43: 1773808.
  • 10
    Nagpal S, Patel S, Asano AT, Johnson AT, Duvic M, Chandraratna RAS. Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1), a novel retinoic acid receptor-responsive gene in skin. J Invest Dermatol 1996; 106: 26974.
  • 11
    Jing C, El-Ghany MA, Beesley C, Foster CS, Rudland PS, Smith P, Ke Y. Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) expression in prostate carcinomas and its relationship to tumorigenicity. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 48290.
  • 12
    DiSepio D, Ghosn C, Eckert RL, Deucher A, Robinson N, Duvic M, Chandraratna RAS, Nagpal S. Identification and characterization of a retinoid-induced class II tumor suppressor/growth regulatory gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 1481115.
  • 13
    Hajnal A, Klemenz R, Schafer R. Subtraction cloning of H-rev107, a gene specifically expressed in H-ras resistant fibroblasts. Oncogene 1994; 9: 47990.
  • 14
    Duvic M, Helekar B, Schulz C, Cho M, DiSepio D, Hager C, DiMao D, Hazarika P, Jackson B, Breuer-McHam J, Young J, Clayman G, et al. Expression of a retinoid-inducible tumor suppressor, tazarotene-inducible gene-3, is decreased in psoriasis and skin cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6: 324959.
  • 15
    Higuchi E, Chandraratna RAS, Hong WK, Lotan R. Induction of TIG3, a putative class II tumor suppressor gene, by retinoic acid in head and neck and lung carcinoma cells and its association with suppression of the transformed phenotype. Oncogene 2003; 22: 462735.
  • 16
    Tsao SW, Wang X, Liu Y, Cheung YC, Feng H, Zheng Z, Wong N, Yuen PW, Lo AK, Wong YC, Huang DP. 2002. Establishment of two immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell lines using SV40 large T and HPV16E6/E7 viral oncogenes. Biochim Biophys Acta 2002; 1590: 1508.
  • 17
    Lo KW, Tsao SW, Leung SF, Choi PHK, Lee JCK, Huang DP. Detailed deletion of mapping on the short arm of chromosome 3 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Oncol 1994; 4: 135964.
  • 18
    Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2 (-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods 2001; 25: 40208.
  • 19
    Herman JG, Graff JR, Myohanen S, Nelkin BD, Baylin SB. Methylation-specific PCR. A novel PCR assay for methylation status of CpG islands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 98216.
  • 20
    Dallol A, Forgacs E, Martinez A, Sekido Y, Walker R, Kishida T, Rabbitts P, Maher ER, Minna JD, Latif F. Tumor specific promoter region methylation of the human homologue of the Drosophilia Roundabout gene DUTT1 (ROBO1) in human cancers. Oncogene 2002; 21: 30208.
  • 21
    Youssef EM, Chen XQ, Higuchi E, Lotan R, Issa JP. Hypermethylation silencing of the retinoid-induced gene (TIG1) promoter in a variety of human cancers. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 2002; 43: 5530.
  • 22
    Tokumaru Y, Sun D-I, Nomoto S, Yamashita K, Sidransky D. Re: Is TIG1 a new tumor suppressor in prostate cancer? J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 91920.
  • 23
    Lo KW, Teo PM, Hui ABY, To KF, Tsang YS, Chan SYY, Mak KF, Lee JC, Huang DP. High resolution allelotyping of microdissected primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 334853.
  • 24
    Hui ABY, Lo KW, Leung SF, Teo PM, Mak KF, To KF, Wong N, Choi PHK, Lee JCK, Huang DP. Detection of recurrent chromosomal gains and losses in primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma by comparative genomic hybridization. Int J Cancer 1999; 82: 498503.
  • 25
    Youssef EM, Chen XQ, Higuchi E, Kondo Y, Garcia-Manero G, Lotan R, Issa JP. Hypermethylation and silencing of the putative tumor suppressor tazarotene-induced gene 1 in human cancers. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 24117.
  • 26
    Zhang J, Liu L, Pfeifer GP. Methylation of the retinoid response gene TIG1 in prostate cancer correlates with methylation of the retinoic acid receptor beta gene. Oncogene 2004; 23: 22419.