• 1
    Jemal A, Murray T, Samuels A, Ghafoor A, Ward E, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2003. CA Cancer J Clin 2003; 53: 526.
  • 2
    Sternberg CN. Current treatment strategies in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2003; 47: 81102.
  • 3
    Segal R, Winquist E, Lukka H, Chin JL, Brundage M, Markman BR, Cancer Care Ontario Practice Guidelines Initiative Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group. Adjuvant chemotherapy for deep muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma: a practice guideline. Can J Urol 2002; 9: 162533.
  • 4
    Raghavan D, Quinn D, Skinner DG, Stein JP. Surgery and adjunctive chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. Surg Oncol 2002; 11: 5563.
  • 5
    Saxman SB, Propert KJ, Einhorn LH, Crawford ED, Tannock I, Raghavan D, Loehrer PJ Sr, Trump D. Long-term follow-up of a phase III intergroup study of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 25649.
  • 6
    Moore MJ, Tannock IF, Ernst DS, Huan S, Murray N. Gemcitabine: a promising new agent in the treatment of advanced urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 34415.
  • 7
    Cote RJ, Dunn MD, Chatterjee SJ, Stein JP, Shi SR, Tran QC, Hu SX, Xu HJ, Groshen S, Taylor CR, Skinner DG, Benedict WF. Elevated and absent pRb expression is associated with bladder cancer progression and has cooperative effects with p53. Cancer Res 1998; 15: 58: 1090–4.
  • 8
    Knowles MA. What we could do now: molecular pathology of bladder cancer. Mol Pathol 2001; 54: 21521.
  • 9
    Bringuier PP, Umbas R, Schaafsma HE, Karthaus HF, Debruyne FM, Schalken JA. Decreased E-cadherin immunoreactivity correlates with poor survival in patients with bladder tumors. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 32415.
  • 10
    Syrigos KN, Harrington K, Waxman J, Krausz T, Pignatelli M. Altered gamma-catenin expression correlates with poor survival in patients with bladder cancer. J Urol 1998; 160: 188993.
  • 11
    Ribeiro-Filho LA, Franks J, Sasaki M, Shiina H, Li LC, Nojima D, Arap S, Carroll P, Enokida H, Nakagawa M, Yonezawa S, Dahiya R. CpG hypermethylation of promoter region and inactivation of E-cadherin gene in human bladder cancer. Mol Carcinog 2002; 34: 18798.
  • 12
    Horikawa Y, Sugano K, Shigyo M, Yamamoto H, Nakazono M, Fujimoto H, Kanai Y, Hirohashi S, Kakizoe T, Habuchi T, Kato T. Hypermethylation of an E-cadherin (CDH1) promoter region in high grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder comprising carcinoma in situ. J Urol 2003; 169: 15415.
  • 13
    Vigushin DM, Coombes RC. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer treatment. Anti-Cancer Drugs 2002; 13: 113.
  • 14
    Van Lint C, Emiliani S, Verdin E. The expression of a small fraction of cellular genes is changed in response to histone hyperacetylation. Gene Expr 1996; 5: 24553.
  • 15
    Strait KA, Dabbas B, Hammond EH, Warnick CT, Iistrup SJ, Ford CD. Cell cycle blockade and differentiation of ovarian cancer cells by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A are associated with changes in p21, Rb, and Id proteins. Mol Cancer Ther 2002; 1: 118190.
  • 16
    Richon VM, Sandhoff TW, Rifkind RA, Marks PA. Histone deacetylase inhibitor selectively induces p21waf1 expression and gene- associated histone acetylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2000; 97: 100149.
  • 17
    Glaser KB, Staver MJ, Waring JF, Stender J, Ulrich RG, Davidsen SK. Gene expression profiling of multiple histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors: defining a common gene set produced by HDAC inhibition in T24 and MDA carcinoma cell lines. Mol Cancer Ther 2003; 2: 15163.
  • 18
    Davie JR. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by butyrate. J Nutr 2003; 133: 248593.
  • 19
    Ruemmele FM, Dionne S, Qureshi I, Sarma DS, Levy E, Seidman EG. Butyrate mediates Caco-2 cell apoptosis via upregulation of pro-apoptotic BAK and inducing caspase-3 mediated cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Cell Death Differ 1999; 6: 72935.
  • 20
    Butler LM, Agus DB, Scher HI, Higgins B, Rose A, Cordon-Cardo C, Thaler HT, Rifkind RA, Marks PA, Richon VM. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suppresses the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 516570.
  • 21
    Marks PA, Richon VM, Rifkind RA. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: inducers of differentiation or apoptosis of transformed cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 12106.
  • 22
    Gabrielli BG, Johnstone RW, Saunders NA. Identifying molecular targets mediating the anticancer activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors: a work in progress. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2002; 2: 33753.
  • 23
    Vigushin DM, Ali S, Pace PE, Mirsaidi N, Ito K, Adcock I, Coombes RC. Trichostatin A is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with potent antitumor activity against breast cancer in vivo. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7: 9716.
  • 24
    Mishra N, Reilly CM, Brown DR, Ruiz P, Gilkeson GS. Histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate renal disease in the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse. J Clin Invest 2003; 111: 53952.
  • 25
    Carducci M, Bowling MK, Eisenberger M, Sinibaldi V, Chen T, Noe D, Growchow L, Donehower R. Phenylbutyrate (PB) for refractory solid tumors: phase I clinical and pharmacologic evaluation of intravenous and oral PB. Anticancer Res 1997; 17: 39723.
  • 26
    Gilbert J, Baker SD, Bowling MK, Gfrochow L, Figg WD, Zabelina Y, Donehower RC, Carducci MA. A phase I dose escalation and bioavailability study of oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with refractory solid tumor malignancies. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7: 2292300.
  • 27
    Carducci MA, Gilbert J, Bowling MK, Noe D, Eisenberger MA, Sinibaldi V, Zabelina Y, Chen T-l, Grochow LB, Donehower RC. A phase I clinical and pharmacological evaluation of sodium phenylbutyrate on a 120-h infusion schedule. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7: 304755.
  • 28
    Sandor V, Bakke S, Robey RW, Kang MH, Blagosklonny MV, Bender J, Brooks R, Piekarz, Tucker E, Figg WD, Chan KK, Goldspiel B, et al. Phase I trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, depsipeptide (FR901228, NSC 630176), in patients with refractory neoplasm. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8: 71828.
  • 29
    Kelly WK, Richon VM, O'Conner O, Curley T, MacGregor-Curtelli B, Tong W, Klang M, Schwartz L, Richardson S, Rosa E, Dbrobnjak M, Cordon-Cordo C, et al. Phase I clinical trial of histone deacetylase inhibitor: suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid administered intravenously. Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9: 357888.
  • 30
    Kouraklis G, Theocharis S. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and anticancer therapy. Curr Med Chem Anti-Cancer Agents 2002; 2: 47784.
  • 31
    Furumai R, Komatsu Y, Nishino N, Khochbin S, Yoshida M, Horinouch S. Potent histone deacetylase inhibitors built from trichostatin A and cyclic tetrapeptide antibiotics including trapoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98: 8792.
  • 32
    Furumai R, Matsuyama A, Kobashi N, Lee KH, Nishiyama M, Nakajima H, Tanaka A, Komatsu Y, Nishino N, Yoshida M, Horinouchi S. FK228 (depsipeptide) as a natural prodrug that inhibits class I histone deacetylases. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 491621.
  • 33
    Haggarty SJ, Koeller KM, Wong JC, Grozinger CM, Schrieber SL. Domain-selective small-molecule inhibitor of histone deacetylases 6 (HDAC6)-mediated tubulin deacetylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100: 438994.
  • 34
    Han JW, Ahn SH, Kim YK, Bae GU, Yoon JW, Hong S, Lee HY, Lee YW, Lee HW. Activation of p21waf1/Cip1 transcription through Sp1 sites by histone deacetylase inhibitor apicidin: involvement of protein kinase C. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 4208490.
  • 35
    Kim YB, Ki SW, Yoshida M, Horinouchi S. Mechanism of cell cycle arrest caused by histone deacetylase inhibitors in human carcinoma cells. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2000; 53: 1191200.
  • 36
    Archer SY, Meng S, Shei A, Hodin RA. P21 (WAF1) is required for butyrate-mediated growth inhibition of colon cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 67916.
  • 37
    Sommers CL, Gelmann EP, Kemler R, Cowin P, Byers SW. Alterations in β-catenin phosphorylation and plakoglobin expression in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 352244.
  • 38
    Bussemakers MJB, Van Bokhoven A, Tomimta K, Jansen CFJ, Schalken JA. Complex cadherin expression in human prostate cancer cells. Int J Cancer 2000; 85: 44650.
  • 39
    Winn RA, Bremnes RM, Bemis L, Franklin WA, Miller YE, Cool C, Heasley LE. Gamma-catenin expression is reduced or absent in a subset of human lung cancers and re-expression inhibits transformed cell growth. Oncogene 2002; 21: 7497506.
  • 40
    Simcha I, Geiger B, Yehuda-Levenberg S, Salomon D, Ben-Ze'ev A. Suppression of tumorigenicity by plakoglobin: an augmenting effect of N-cadherin. J Cell Biol 1996; 133: 199209.
  • 41
    Kolligs FT, Kolligs B, Hajra KM, Hu G, Tani M, Cho KR, Fearon ER. Gamma-catenin is regulated by the APC tumor suppressor and its oncogenic activity is distinct from that of beta-catenin. Genes Dev 2000; 14: 131931.
  • 42
    Shim JS, Kim DH, Kwon HJ. Plakoglobin is a new target gene of histone deacetylase in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Oncogene 2004; 23: 170411.
  • 43
    Cano A, Perez-Moreno MA, Rodrigo I, Locascio A, Blanco MJ, del Barrio MG, Portillo F, Nieto MA. The transcription factor snail controls epithelial-mesenchymal transitions by repressing E-cadherin expression. Nat Cell Biol 2000; 2: 7683.
  • 44
    Bolos V, Peinado H, Perez-Moreno MA, Fraga MF, Esteller M, Cano A. The transcription factor Slug represses E-cadherin expression and induces epithelial to mesenchymal transitions: a comparison with Snail and E47 repressors. J Cell Sci 2003; 116: 499511.
  • 45
    Rosivatz E, Becker I, Specht K, Fricke E, Luber B, Busch R, Hofler H, Becker KF. Differential expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators snail, SIP1, and twist in gastric cancer. Am J Pathol 2002; 161: 188191.
  • 46
    Zhurinsky J, Shtutman M, Ben-Ze'ev A. Plakoglobin and β-catenin: protein interactions, regulation and biological roles. J Cell Sci 2000; 113: 312739.
  • 47
    Kim MS, Blake M, Baek JH, Kohlhagen G, Pommier Y, Carrier F. Inhibition of histone deacetylase increases cytotoxicity to anticancer drugs targeting DNA. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 7291300.