• 1
    Holt S, Miller JC, Petocz P. An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 126476.
  • 2
    Ionescu-Tirgoviste C, Popa E, Sintu E, Mihalache N, Cheta D, Mincu I. Blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to various carbohydrates in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent diabetes). Diabetologia 1983; 24: 804.
  • 3
    Jenkins DJ, Kendal CW, Augustin LS, Franceschi S, Hamidi M, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Axelsen M. Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76(Suppl): 266S73S.
  • 4
    Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 556.
  • 5
    Byrnes SE, Miller JCB, Denyer GS. Amylopectin starch promotes the development of insulin resistance in rats. J Nutr 1995; 125: 14307.
  • 6
    Ludwig DS. Dietary glycemic index and obesity. J Nutr 2000; 130(Suppl): 280S3S.
  • 7
    Plymate SR, Jones RE, Matej LA, Friedl KE. Regulation of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) production in Hep G2 cells by insulin. Steroids 1988; 52: 33940.
  • 8
    Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Ebrahim S. Hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of breast cancer: findings from the British women's heart and health study. Cancer Causes Control 2004; 15: 26775.
  • 9
    Bruning PF, Bonfrer JM, van Noord PA, Hart AA, de Jong-Bakker M, Nooijen WJ. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk. Int J Cancer 1992; 52: 5116.
  • 10
    Cho E, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Chen WY, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Premenopausal dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, glycemic load and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2003; 12: 11538.
  • 11
    Folsom AR, Demissie Z, Harnack L. Correspondence re: C.R. Jonas et al.: dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of incident breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2003; 12: 5737.
  • 12
    Jonas CR, McCullough ML, Teras LR, Walker-Thurmond KA, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of incident breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2003; 12: 5737.
  • 13
    Higgenbotham S, Zhang ZF, Lee IM, Cook NR, Buring JE, Liu S. Dietary glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2004; 13: 6570.
  • 14
    Holmes MD, Liu S, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Willett WC. Dietary carbohydrates, fiber and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159: 7329.
  • 15
    Augustin LS, Dal Maso L, La Vecchia C, Parpinel M, Negri E, Vaccarella S, Kendal lCW, Jenkins DJ, Francesch S. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and breast cancer risk: a case-control study. Ann Oncol 2001; 12: 15338.
  • 16
    Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Buckley G, Lam KY, Guidici S, Kalmusky J, Jenkins AL, Patten RL, Bird J, Wong GS. Low-glycemic-index starchy foods in the diabetic diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48: 24854.
  • 17
    Terry PD, Jain M, Miller AB, Howe GR, Rohan TE. Dietary carotenoid intake and colorectal cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 2002; 42: 16772.
  • 18
    Miller AB, Baines CJ, To T, Wall C. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: I, breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 40–49 years; II, breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 50–59 years. Can Med Assoc J 1992; 147: 145988.
  • 19
    Jain M, Harrison L, Howe GR, Miller AB. Evaluation of a self-administered dietary questionnaire for use in a cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 9315.
  • 20
    Morgan AB, Jain M, Miller AB, Choi NW, Matthews V, Munan L, Burch JD, Feather J, Howe GR, Kelly A. A comparison of dietary methods in epidemiologic studies. Am J Epidemiol 1978; 107: 48898.
  • 21
    Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Holmes MD, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Willett WC. Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73: 5606.
  • 22
    Willett WC, Stampfer MJ. Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124: 1727.
  • 23
    Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Modern epidemiology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1998.
  • 24
    Rohan TE, Hartwick W, Miller AB, Kandel RA. Immunohistochemical detection of c-erbB-2 and p-53 in benign breast disease and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 12629.
  • 25
    Jain M, Miller AB. Tumor characteristics and survival of breast cancer patients in relation to premorbid diet and body size. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1997; 42: 4355.
  • 26
    Kaaks R, Lukanova A. Effects of weight control and physical activity in cancer prevention: role endogenous hormone metabolism. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002; 963: 26881.
  • 27
    Gross GE, Boldt DH, Osborne CK. Perturbation by insulin of human breast cancer cell kinetics. Cancer Res 1984; 44: 35705.
  • 28
    Geier A, Beery R, Haimshon M, Hemi R, Lunenfeld B. Serum and insulin inhibit cell death inducted by cycloheximide in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 1992; 28A: 4158.
  • 29
    Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ. Decreases in ovarian cytochrome P450c17-alpha activity and serum free testosterone after reduction of insulin secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 61723.
  • 30
    Giovannucci E. Insulin, insulin-like growth factors and colon cancer: a review of the evidence. J Nutr 2001; 131: 3109S20S.
  • 31
    Kelley DE, Goodpaster BH. Effects of physical activity on insulin action and glucose tolerance in obesity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 619S23S.
  • 32
    Borghouts LB, Keizer HA. Exercise and insulin insensitivity: a review. Int J Sports Med 2000; 21: 112.
  • 33
    Preziosi P, Barrett-Connor E, Papoz L, Roger M, Saint-Pau lM, Nahoul K, Simon D. Interrelation between plasma sex hormone-binding globulin and plasma insulin in healthy adult women: the Telecom study. J Clin Endocrinol 1993; 76: 2837.
  • 34
    Poretsky L, Kalin MF. The gonadotropic function of insulin. Endocrine Rev 1987; 8: 13241.
  • 35
    Romieu I, Lazcano-Ponce E, Sanchez-Zamorano LM, Willet W, Hernandez-Avila M. Carbohydrates and the risk of breast cancer among Mexican women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2004; 13: 12839.
  • 36
    Willett WC, Stampfer MJ. Nutritional epidemiology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press, 1998.