SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Jemal A, Thomas A, Murray T, Thun M. Cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2002; 52: 2347.
  • 2
    Carethers JM. Racial and ethnic factors in the genetic pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. J Assoc Acad Minor Phys 1999; 10: 5967.
  • 3
    Troisi RJ, Freedman AN, Devesa SS. Incidence of colorectal carcinoma in the U.S.: an update of trends by gender, race, age, subsite, and stage, 1975–1994. Cancer 1999; 85: 16706.
  • 4
    Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Ebersole-Robinson M, Catley D, Mayo MS, Resnicow K. Does menthol attenuate the effect of bupropion among African American smokers? Addiction 2003; 98: 138793.
  • 5
    Maekawa M, Sugano K, Ushiama M, Fukayama N, Nomoto K, Kashiwabara H, Fujita S, Kakizoe T. Heterogeneity of DNA methylation status analyzed by bisulfite-PCR-SSCP and correlation with clinico-pathological characteristics in colorectal cancer. Clin Chem Lab Med 2001; 39: 1218.
  • 6
    Dietmaier W, Wallinger S, Bocker T, Kullmann F, Fishel R, Ruschoff J. Diagnostic microsatellite instability: definition and correlation with mismatch repair protein expression. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 474956.
  • 7
    Thibodeau SN, French AJ, Cunningham JM, Tester D, Burgart LJ, Roche PC, McDonnell SK, Schaid DJ, Vockley CW, Michels VV, Farr GH,Jr., O'Connell MJ. Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer: different mutator phenotypes and the principal involvement of hMLH1. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 17138.
  • 8
    Lindor NM, Burgart LJ, Leontovich O, Goldberg RM, Cunningham JM, Sargent DJ, Walsh-Vockley C, Petersen GM, Walsh MD, Leggett BA, Young JP, Barker MA, et al. Immunohistochemistry versus microsatellite instability testing in phenotyping colorectal tumors. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 10438.
  • 9
    Kane MF, Loda M, Gaida GM, Lipman J, Mishra R, Goldman H, Jessup JM, Kolodner R. Methylation of the hMLH1 promoter correlates with lack of expression of hMLH1 in sporadic colon tumors and mismatch repair-defective human tumor cell lines. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 80811.
  • 10
    Cunningham JM, Christensen ER, Tester DJ, Kim CY, Roche PC, Burgart LJ, Thibodeau SN. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter in colon cancer with microsatellite instability. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 345560.
  • 11
    Ashktorab H, Smoot DT, Carethers JM, Rahmanian M, Kittles R, Vosganian G, Doura M, Nidhiry E, Naab T, Momen B, Shakhani S, Giardiello FM. High incidence of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer from African Americans. Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9: 11127.
  • 12
    Boland CR, Thibodeau SN, Hamilton SR, Sidransky D, Eshleman JR, Burt RW, Meltzer SJ, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Fodde R, Ranzani GN, Srivastava S. A National Cancer Institute Workshop on Microsatellite Instability for cancer detection and familial predisposition: development of international criteria for the determination of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 524857.
  • 13
    Wiggers T, Arends JW, Schutte B, Volovics L, Bosman FT. A multivariate analysis of pathologic prognostic indicators in large bowel cancer. Cancer 1988; 61: 38695.
  • 14
    Cravo ML, Fidalgo PO, Lage PA, Albuquerque CM, Chaves PP, Claro I, Gomes T, Gaspar C, Soares JO, Nobre-Leitao C. Validation and simplification of Bethesda guidelines for identifying apparently sporadic forms of colorectal carcinoma with microsatellite instability. Cancer 1999; 85: 77985.
  • 15
    Carethers JM, Chauhan DP, Fink D, Nebel S, Bresalier RS, Howell SB, Boland CR. Mismatch repair proficiency and in vitro response to 5-fluorouracil. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 12331.
  • 16
    Kim H, Jen J, Vogelstein B, Hamilton SR. Clinical and pathological characteristics of sporadic colorectal carcinomas with DNA replication errors in microsatellite sequences. Am J Pathol 1994; 145: 14856.
  • 17
    Lothe RA, Peltomaki P, Meling GI, Aaltonen LA, Nystrom-Lahti M, Pylkkanen L, Heimdal K, Andersen TI, Moller P, Rognum TO, et al. Genomic instability in colorectal cancer: relationship to clinicopathological variables and family history. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 584952.
  • 18
    Risio M, Reato G, di Celle PF, Fizzotti M, Rossini FP, Foa R. Microsatellite instability is associated with the histological features of the tumor in nonfamilial colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 54704.
  • 19
    Carethers JM, Smith EJ, Behling CA, Nguyen L, Tajima A, Doctolero RT, Cabrera BL, Goel A, Arnold CA, Miyai K, Boland CR. Use of 5-fluorouracil and survival in patients with microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 394401.
  • 20
    Aaltonen LA, Peltomaki P, Leach FS, Sistonen P, Pylkkanen L, Mecklin JP, Jarvinen H, Powell SM, Jen J, Hamilton SR, et al. Clues to the pathogenesis of familial colorectal cancer. Science 1993; 260: 8126.
  • 21
    Gryfe R, Gallinger S. Microsatellite instability, mismatch repair deficiency, and colorectal cancer. Surgery 2001; 130: 1720.
  • 22
    Aaltonen LA, Salovaara R, Kristo P, Canzian F, Hemminki A, Peltomaki P, Chadwick RB, Kaariainen H, Eskelinen M, Jarvinen H, Mecklin JP, de la Chapelle A. Incidence of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and the feasibility of molecular screening for the disease. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 14817.
  • 23
    Weber TK, Chin HM, Rodriguez-Bigas M, Keitz B, Gilligan R, O'Malley L, Urf E, Diba N, Pazik J, Petrelli NJ. Novel hMLH1 and hMSH2 germline mutations in African Americans with colorectal cancer. JAMA 1999; 281: 231620.
  • 24
    Nakagawa H, Nuovo GJ, Zervos EE, Martin EW,Jr., Salovaara R, Aaltonen LA, de la Chapelle A. Age-related hypermethylation of the 5′ region of MLH1 in normal colonic mucosa is associated with microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer development. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 69915.
  • 25
    DeCosse JJ, Ngoi SS, Jacobson JS, Cennerazzo WJ. Gender and colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 1993; 2: 10515.
  • 26
    McMichael AJ, Potter JD. Do intrinsic sex differences in lower alimentary tract physiology influence the sex-specific risks of bowel cancer and other biliary and intestinal diseases? Am J Epidemiol 1983; 118: 6207.
  • 27
    Breivik J, Lothe RA, Meling GI, Rognum TO, Borresen-Dale AL, Gaudernack G. Different genetic pathways to proximal and distal colorectal cancer influenced by sex-related factors. Int J Cancer 1997; 74: 6649.
  • 28
    Ward R, Meagher A, Tomlinson I, O'Connor T, Norrie M, Wu R, Hawkins N. Microsatellite instability and the clinicopathological features of sporadic colorectal cancer. Gut 2001; 48: 8219.
  • 29
    Canto M, Piantadosi S, Helzlsouer K, Crum R, G P. Impacts of race and health insurance on colorectal cancer mortality. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: A376.
  • 30
    Marcella S, Miller JE. Racial differences in colorectal cancer mortality. The importance of stage and socioeconomic status. J Clin Epidemiol 2001; 54: 35966.
  • 31
    Fleisher AS, Esteller M, Wang S, Tamura G, Suzuki H, Yin J, Zou TT, Abraham JM, Kong D, Smolinski KN, Shi YQ, Rhyu MG, et al. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter in human gastric cancers with microsatellite instability. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 10905.
  • 32
    Wright CL, Stewart ID. Histopathology and mismatch repair status of 458 consecutive colorectal carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 2003; 27: 1393406.
  • 33
    Arnold CN, Goel A, Boland CR. Role of hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation in drug resistance to 5-fluorouracil in colorectal cancer cell lines. Int J Cancer 2003; 106: 6673.