Gains and losses of chromosomes 1, 3, 6 and 8 are nonrandom chromosomal aberrations in uveal melanoma. Monosomy 3 is the most frequent abnormality and is associated with poor prognosis. To identify regions of allelic loss on the short arm of chromosome 1 and to investigate if these alterations contribute to uveal melanoma progression, we performed microsatellite analysis of 10 loci in 70 uveal melanomas. A total of 51 tumors were obtained from patients with clinical follow-up data, 19 tumors were from recent patients without follow-up. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of at least 1 marker was more frequent in tumors with monosomy 3 (40%) than in tumors with disomy 3 (10%). In particular, loss of the entire short arm of chromosome 1 was only observed in tumors with monosomy 3 (p = 0.0001). By comparing the extent of 1p LOH in all tumors with monosomy 3, we were able to define a smallest region of overlap (SRO) of approximately 55 Mb, which is flanked by markers D1S507 and D1S198. On the basis of our data and published cytogenetic data, we propose that 1p31 harbors genes involved in the progression of uveal melanoma with monosomy 3. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.