To search for a marker that predicts the efficacy of radiation therapy in human cervical cancer, gene expression profiles between parental SiHa cervical cancer cells and radiation-resistant SiHa/R cells have been compared by the microarray technique. Microarray and Northern blot analyses demonstrated that the ICAM-3 expression was upregulated in SiHa/R cells. This increased expression of ICAM-3 in SiHa cells enhanced cell survival by about 34.3% after a 2 Gy dosage of radiation. In addition, SiHa/ICAM-3 cells showed a 2.45-fold higher level of FAK phosphorylation than that of the control cells. In tumor specimens, ICAM-3 staining was restricted to tumor stromal endothelial cells and lymphocytes. The overexpression of ICAM-3 was significantly more frequent in radiation-resistant cervical cancer specimens when compared with radiation-sensitive specimens (83.3% vs. 35.3%; p = 0.015). With these observations, we can suggest that an increased expression of ICAM-3 is associated with radiation resistance in cervical cancer cells and the expression of ICAM-3 can be used as a valuable biomarker to predict the radiation resistance in cervical cancer that occurs during radiotherapy. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.