SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    IARC. Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 83. Lyon, France: IARC, 2004.
  • 2
    WHO. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the breast and female genital organs. In: Tavassoli FA, Devilee P, eds. WHO classification of tumours. Lyon, France: IARC, 2003.
  • 3
    Munoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S, Herrero R, Castellsague X, Shah KV, Snijders PJ, Meijer CJ. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 51827.
  • 4
    Plummer M. Improved estimates of floating absolute risk. Stat Med 2004; 23: 93104.
  • 5
    Vessey M, Painter R, Yeates D. Mortality in relation to oral contraceptive use and cigarette smoking. Lancet 2003; 362: 18591.
  • 6
    Gram IT, Austin H, Stalsberg H. Cigarette smoking and the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III, and cancer of the cervix uteri. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135: 3416.
  • 7
    Ylitalo N, Sorensen P, Josefsson A, Frisch M, Sparen P, Ponten J, Gyllensten U, Melbye M, Adami HO. Smoking and oral contraceptives as risk factors for cervical carcinoma in situ. Int J Cancer 1999; 81: 35765.
  • 8
    Deacon JM, Evans CD, Yule R, Desai M, Binns W, Taylor C, Peto J. Sexual behaviour and smoking as determinants of cervical HPV infection and of CIN3 among those infected: a case-control study nested within the Manchester cohort. Br J Cancer 2000; 83: 156572.
  • 9
    Kjaer SK, van den Brule AJ, Bock JE, Poll PA, Engholm G, Sherman ME, Walboomers JM, Meijer CJ. Human papillomavirus—the most significant risk determinant of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Cancer 1996; 65: 6016.
  • 10
    Schiffman MH, Bauer HM, Hoover RN, Glass AG, Cadell DM, Rush BB, Scott DR, Sherman ME, Kurman RJ, Wacholder S. Epidemiologic evidence showing that human papillomavirus infection causes most cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85: 958964.
  • 11
    Hildesheim A, Herrero R, Castle P, Wacholder S, Bratti M, Sherman ME, Lorincz AT, Burk RD, Morales J, Rodriguez AC, Helgesen K, Alfaro M, et al. HPV co-factors related to the developement of cervical cancer: results from a population-based study in Costa Rica. Br J Cancer 2001; 84: 121926.
  • 12
    Beral V, Million Women Study Collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 2003; 362: 41927.
  • 13
    Peters RK, Thomas D, Hagan D, Mack T, Henderson BE. Risk factors for invasive cervical cancer among Latinas and non-Latinas in Los Angeles County. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986; 77: 10631077.
  • 14
    Brinton LA, Schairer C, Haenszel W, Stolley P, Lehman HF, Levine R, Savitz DA. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer. JAMA 1986; 255: 32659.
  • 15
    Cuzick J, Singer A, De Stavola BL, Chomet J. Case-control study of risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in young women. Eur J Cancer 1990; 26: 68490.
  • 16
    Kjaer SK, Engholm G, Dahl C, Bock JE. Case-control study of risk factors for cervical squamous cell neoplasia in Denmark. IV: role of smoking habits. Eur J Cancer Prev 1996; 5: 35965.
  • 17
    Ursin G, Pike MC, Preston-Martin S, d'Ablaing GIII, Peters RK. Sexual, reproductive, and other risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the cervix: results from a population-based case-control study (California, United States). Cancer Causes Control 1996; 7: 391401.
  • 18
    Green J, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Sweetland S, Beral V, Chilvers C, Crossley B, Deacon J, Hermon C, Jha PK, Mant D, Peto J, Pike MC, et al. Risk factors for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in women aged 20–44 years: the UK National Case-Control Study of Cervical Cancer. Br J Cancer 2003; 89: 207886.
  • 19
    Bosch FX, Muñoz N, de Sanjose S, Izarzugaza I, Gili M, Viladiu P, Tormo MJ, Moreo P, Ascunce N, Gonzalez LC. Risk factors for cervical cancer in Colombia and Spain. Int J Cancer 1992; 52: 7508.
  • 20
    Cuzick J, Sasieni P, Singer A. Risk factors for invasive cervix cancer in young women. Eur J Cancer 1996; 32A: 83641.
  • 21
    Daling JR, Madeleine MM, McKnight B, Carter JJ, Wipf GC, Ashley R, Schwartz SM, Beckmann AM, Hagensee ME, Mandelson MT, Galloway DA. The relationship of human papillomavirus-related cervical tumors to cigarette smoking, oral contraceptive use, and prior herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996; 5: 5418.
  • 22
    Madeleine MM, Daling JR, Schwartz SM, Shera K, McKnight B, Carter JJ, Wipf GC, Critchlow CW, McDougall JK, Porter P, Galloway DA. Human papillomavirus and long-term oral contraceptive use increase the risk of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 1717.
  • 23
    Lacey JVJ, Frisch M, Brinton LA, Abbas FM, Barnes WA, Gravitt PE, Greenberg MD, Greene SM, Hadjimichael OC, McGowan L, Mortel R, Schwartz PE, et al. Associations between smoking and adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001; 12: 15361.
  • 24
    WHO. Invasive squamous-cell cervical carcinoma and combined oral contraceptives: results from a multinational study. WHO collaborative study of neoplasia and steroid contraceptives. Int J Cancer 1993; 55: 22836.
  • 25
    La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Decarli A, Fasoli M, Gentile A, Tognoni G. Cigarette smoking and the risk of cervical neoplasia. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 123: 2229.
  • 26
    Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Fedele L, Franceschi S, Gallotta L. Risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer 1992; 69: 227682.
  • 27
    Herrero R, Brinton L, Reeves W, Brenes M, Tenorio F, de Britton R, Gaitan E, Garcia M, Rawls W. Invasive cervical cancer and smoking in Latin America. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81: 20511.
  • 28
    Muñoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S, Vergara A, del Moral A, Munoz MT, Tafur L, Gili M, Izarzugaza I, Viladiu P. Risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III/carcinoma in situ in Spain and Colombia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1993; 2: 42331.
  • 29
    Rolon PA, Smith JS, Muñoz N, Klug SJ, Herrero R, Bosch X, Llamosas F, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Human papillomavirus infection and invasive cervical cancer in Paraguay. Int J Cancer 2000; 85: 48691.
  • 30
    Eluf-Neto J, Booth M, Muñoz N, Bosch FX, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer in Brazil. Br J Cancer 1994; 69: 1149.
  • 31
    Chichareon S, Herrero R, Muñoz N, Bosch FX, Jacobs MV, Deacon J, Santamaria M, Chongsuvivatwong V, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Risk factors for cervical cancer in Thailand: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 507.
  • 32
    Bayo S, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S, Muñoz N, Combita AL, Coursaget P, Diaz M, Dolo A, van den Brule AJ, Meijer CJ. Risk factors of invasive cervical cancer in Mali. Int J Epidemiol 2002; 31: 2029.
  • 33
    Ngelangel C, Muñoz N, Bosch FX, Limson GM, Festin MR, Deacon J, Jacobs MV, Santamaria M, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Causes of cervical cancer in the Philippines: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 439.
  • 34
    Chaouki N, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, El Gueddari B, El Ghazi A, Deacon J, Castellsague X, Walboomers JM. The viral origin of cervical cancer in Rabat, Morocco. Int J Cancer 1998; 75: 54654.
  • 35
    Santos C, Muñoz N, Klug SJ, Almonte M, Guerrero E, Alvarez M, Velarde C, Galdos O, Castillo M, Walboomers JM, Meijer CJ, Caceres E. HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru. Br J Cancer 2001; 85: 96671.
  • 36
    Hammouda D, Muñoz N, Herrero R, Arslan A, Bouhadef A, Oublil M, Djedeat B, Fontaniere B, Snijders O, Meijer C, Franceschi S. Cervical carcinoma in Algiers, Algeria: human papillomavirus and lifestyle risk factors. Int J Cancer 2005; 113: 4839.
  • 37
    Rajkumar T, Franceschi S, Vaccarella S, Gajalakshmi V, Sharmila A, Snijders P, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, Herrero R. Role of paan chewing and dietary habits in cervical carcinoma in Chennai, India. Br J Cancer 2003; 88: 138893.
  • 38
    Thomas DB, Qin Q, Kuypers J, Kiviat N, Ashley R, Koetsawang A, Ray R, Koetsawang S. Human papillomaviruses and cervical cancer in Bangkok. II. Risk factors for in situ and invasive squamous cell cervical carcinomas. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153: 7329.
  • 39
    Sitas F, Pacella-Norman R, Carrara H, Patel M, Ruff P, Sur R, Jentsch U, Hale M, Rowjil P, Saffer D, Connor M, Bull D, et al. The spectrum of HIV-1 related cancers in South Africa. Int J Cancer 2000; 88: 489492.
  • 40
    Celentano DD, Klassen AC, Weisman CS, Rosenshein NB. The role of contraceptive use in cervical cancer: the Maryland cervical cancer case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 126: 592604.
  • 41
    Hirose K, Hamajima N, Takezaki T, Kuroishi T, Kuzuya K, Tokudome S, Tajima K. Smoking and dietary risk factors for cervical cancer at different age groups in Japan. J Epidemiol 1998; 8: 614.
  • 42
    Lazcano-Ponce EC, Hernandez-Avila M, Lopez-Carrillo L, Alonso de Ruiz P, Torres-Lobaton A, Gonzalez-Lira G, Romieu I. [ Reproductive risk factors and sexual history associated with cervical cancer in Mexico (Spanish)]. Rev Invest Clin 1995; 47: 37785.
  • 43
    Shapiro S, Rosenberg L, Hoffman M, Kelly JP, Cooper DD, Carrara H, Denny LE, du TG, Allan BR, Stander IA, Williamson AL. Risk of invasive cancer of the cervix in relation to the use of injectable progestogen contraceptives and combined estrogen/progestogen oral contraceptives (South Africa). Cancer Causes Control 2003; 14: 48595.
  • 44
    Slattery ML, Robison LM, Schuman KL, French TK, Abbott TM, Overall JC,Jr, Gardner JW. Cigarette smoking and exposure to passive smoke are risk factors for cervical cancer. JAMA 1989; 261: 15938.
  • 45
    Stone KM, Zaidi A, Rosero-Bixby L, Oberle MW, Reynolds G, Larsen S, Nahmias AJ, Lee FK, Schachter J, Guinan ME. Sexual behavior, sexually transmitted diseases, and risk of cervical cancer. Epidemiology 1995; 6: 40914.
  • 46
    Talbott E, Norman S, Kuller L, Ishii E, Baffone K, Dunn M, Krampe B, Weinberg G. Refining preventive strategies for invasive cervical cancer: a population-based case-control study. J Womens Health 1995; 4: 38795.
  • 47
    Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer A, Shah K, Snijders PJ, Peto J, Meijer CJ, Muñoz N. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 1999; 189: 129.
  • 48
    Bergstrom R, Sparen P, Adami HO. Trends in cancer of the cervix uteri in Sweden following cytological screening. Br J Cancer 1999; 81: 15966.