• 1
    Schulze-Osthoff K, Stroh C. Induced proximity model attracts NF-kappaB researchers. Cell Death Differ 2000; 7: 10256.
  • 2
    Baliga B, Kumar S. Apaf-1/cytochrome c apoptosome: an essential initiator of caspase activation or just a sideshow? Cell Death Differ 2003; 10: 1618.
  • 3
    O'Reilly LA, Ekert P, Harvey N, Marsden V, Cullen L, Vaux DL, Hacker G, Magnusson C, Pakusch M, Cecconi F, Kuida K, Strasser A, et al. Caspase-2 is not required for thymocyte or neuronal apoptosis even though cleavage of caspase-2 is dependent on both Apaf-1 and caspase-9. Cell Death Differ 2002; 9: 83241.
  • 4
    Henshall DC, Bonislawski DP, Skradski SL, Araki T, Lan JQ, Schindler CK, Meller R, Simon RP. Formation of the Apaf-1/cytochrome c complex precedes activation of caspase-9 during seizure-induced neuronal death. Cell Death Differ 2001; 8: 116981.
  • 5
    Fortin A, Cregan SP, MacLaurin JG, Kushwaha N, Hickman ES, Thompson CS, Hakim A, Albert PR, Cecconi F, Helin K, Park DS, Slack RS. APAF1 is a key transcriptional target for p53 in the regulation of neuronal cell death. J Cell Biol 2001; 155: 20716.
  • 6
    Moroni MC, Hickman ES, Denchi EL, Caprara G, Colli E, Cecconi F, Muller H, Helin K. Apaf-1 is a transcriptional target for E2F and p53. Nat Cell Biol 2001; 3: 5528.
  • 7
    Kamarajan P, Sun NK, Sun CL, Chao CC. Apaf-1 overexpression partially overcomes apoptotic resistance in a cisplatin-selected HeLa cell line. FEBS Lett 2001; 505: 20612.
  • 8
    Jia L, Srinivasula SM, Liu FT, Newland AC, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, Kelsey SM. Apaf-1 protein deficiency confers resistance to cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis in human leukemic cells. Blood 2001; 98: 41421.
  • 9
    Wolf BB, Schuler M, Li W, Eggers-Sedlet B, Lee W, Tailor P, Fitzgerald P, Mills GB, Green DR. Defective cytochrome c-dependent caspase activation in ovarian cancer cell lines due to diminished or absent apoptotic protease activating factor-1 activity. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 3424451.
  • 10
    Liu JR, Opipari AW, Tan L, Jiang Y, Zhang Y, Tang H, Nunez G. Dysfunctional apoptosome activation in ovarian cancer: implications for chemoresistance. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 92431.
  • 11
    Soengas MS, Alarcon RM, Yoshida H, Giaccia AJ, Hakem R, Mak TW, Lowe SW. Apaf-1 and caspase-9 in p53-dependent apoptosis and tumor inhibition. Science 1999; 284: 1569.
  • 12
    Soengas MS, Capodieci P, Polsky D, Mora J, Esteller M, Opitz-Araya X, McCombie R, Herman JG, Gerald WL, Lazebnik YA, Cordon-Cardo C, Lowe SW. Inactivation of the apoptosis effector Apaf-1 in malignant melanoma. Nature 2001; 409: 20711.
  • 13
    Baldi A, Santini D, Russo P, Catricala C, Amantea A, Picardo M, Tatangelo F, Botti G, Dragonetti E, Murace R, Tonini G, Natali PG, et al. Analysis of APAF-1 expression in human cutaneous melanoma progression. Exp Dermatol 2004; 13: 937.
  • 14
    Dai DL, Martinka M, Bush JA, Li G. Reduced Apaf-1 expression in human cutaneous melanomas. Br J Cancer 2004; 91: 108995.
  • 15
    Fujimoto A, Takeuchi H, Taback B, Hsueh EC, Elashoff D, Morton DL, Hoon DS. Allelic imbalance of 12q22-23 associated with APAF-1 locus correlates with poor disease outcome in cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 224550.
  • 16
    Peltenburg LT, de Bruin EC, Meersma D, Smit NP, Schrier PI, Medema JP. Expression and function of the apoptosis effector Apaf-1 in melanoma. Cell Death Differ 2005; 12: 6789.
  • 17
    Allen JD, Zhang XD, Scott CL, Boyle GM, Hersey P, Strasser A. Is Apaf-1 expression frequently abrogated in melanoma? Cell Death Differ 2005; 12: 6801.
  • 18
    Bosanquet AG, Sturm I, Wieder T, Essmann F, Bosanquet MI, Head DJ, Dörken B, Daniel PT. Bax expression correlates with cellular drug sensitivity to doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and chlorambucil but not fludarabine, cladribine or corticosteroids in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia 2002; 16: 103544.
  • 19
    Sturm I, Bosanquet AG, Hermann S, Guner D, Dörken B, Daniel PT. Mutation of p53 and consecutive selective drug resistance in B-CLL occurs as a consequence of prior DNA-damaging chemotherapy. Cell Death Differ 2003; 10: 47784.
  • 20
    Cheson BD, Bennett JM, Grever M, Kay N, Keating MJ, O'Brien S, Rai KR. National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group guidelines for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: revised guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Blood 1996; 87: 49907.
  • 21
    Prokop A, Wieder T, Sturm I, Essmann F, Seeger K, Wuchter C, Ludwig WD, Henze G, Dörken B, Daniel PT. Relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with a decrease of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and loss of spontaneous caspase-3 processing in vivo. Leukemia 2000; 14: 160613.
  • 22
    Heid CA, Stevens J, Livak KJ, Williams PM. Real time quantitative PCR. Genome Res 1996; 6: 98694.
  • 23
    van Dongen JJ, Langerak AW, Bruggemann M, Evans PA, Hummel M, Lavender FL, Delabesse E, Davi F, Schuuring E, Garcia-Sanz R, van Krieken JH, Droese J, et al. Design and standardization of PCR primers and protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936. Leukemia 2003; 17: 2257317.
  • 24
    Hamblin TJ, Davis Z, Gardiner A, Oscier DG, Stevenson FK. Unmutated Ig V(H) genes are associated with a more aggressive form of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1999; 94: 184854.
  • 25
    Bosanquet AG, Bell PB. Novel ex vivo analysis of nonclassical, pleiotropic drug resistance and collateral sensitivity induced by therapy provides a rationale for treatment strategies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1996; 87: 196271.
  • 26
    Bosanquet AG, Bell PB. Enhanced ex vivo drug sensitivity testing of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia using refined DiSC assay methodology. Leuk Res 1996; 20: 14353.
  • 27
    Bosanquet AG, Bosanquet MI. Ex vivo assessment of drug response by differential staining cytotoxicity (DiSC) assay suggests a biological basis for equality of chemotherapy irrespective of age for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Leukemia 2000; 14: 7125.
  • 28
    Güner D, Sturm I, Hemmati P, Hermann S, Hauptmann S, Wurm R, Budach V, Dörken B, Lorenz M, Daniel PT. Multigene analysis of Rb pathway and apoptosis control in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma identifies patients with good prognosis. Int J Cancer 2003; 103: 44554.
  • 29
    Schelwies K, Sturm I, Grabowski P, Scherubl H, Schindler I, Hermann S, Stein H, Buhr HJ, Riecken EO, Zeitz M, Dörken B, Daniel PT. Analysis of p53/BAX in primary colorectal carcinoma: low BAX protein expression is a negative prognostic factor in UICC stage III tumors. Int J Cancer 2002; 99: 58996.
  • 30
    Sturm I, Kohne CH, Wolff G, Petrowsky H, Hillebrand T, Hauptmann S, Lorenz M, Dörken B, Daniel PT. Analysis of the p53/BAX pathway in colorectal cancer: low BAX is a negative prognostic factor in patients with resected liver metastases. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17: 136474.
  • 31
    Sturm I, Papadopoulos S, Hillebrand T, Benter T, Luck HJ, Wolff G, Dörken B, Daniel PT. Impaired BAX protein expression in breast cancer: mutational analysis of the BAX and the p53 gene. Int J Cancer 2000; 87: 51721.
  • 32
    Sturm I, Petrowsky H, Volz R, Lorenz M, Radetzki S, Hillebrand T, Wolff G, Hauptmann S, Dörken B, Daniel PT. Analysis of p53/BAX/p16(ink4a/CDKN2) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: high BAX and p16(ink4a/CDKN2) identifies patients with good prognosis. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 227281.
  • 33
    Mrozek A, Petrowsky H, Sturm I, Kraus J, Hermann S, Hauptmann S, Lorenz M, Dörken B, Daniel PT. Combined p53/Bax mutation results in extremely poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma with low microsatellite instability. Cell Death Differ 2003; 10: 4617.
  • 34
    van Loo G, Saelens X, van Gurp M, MacFarlane M, Martin SJ, Vandenabeele P. The role of mitochondrial factors in apoptosis: a Russian roulette with more than one bullet. Cell Death Differ 2002; 9: 103142.
  • 35
    Zong WX, Ditsworth D, Bauer DE, Wang ZQ, Thompson CB. Alkylating DNA damage stimulates a regulated form of necrotic cell death. Genes Dev 2004; 18: 127282.
  • 36
    Scholz C, Wieder T, Starck L, Essmann F, Schulze-Osthoff K, Dorken B, Daniel PT. Arsenic trioxide triggers a regulated form of caspase-independent necrotic cell death via the mitochondrial death pathway. Oncogene 2005; 24: 190413.
  • 37
    May P, May E. Twenty years of p53 research: structural and functional aspects of the p53 protein. Oncogene 1999; 18: 762136.
  • 38
    Sax JK, El-Deiry WS. p53 downstream targets and chemosensitivity. Cell Death Differ 2003; 10: 41317.
  • 39
    Clarke AR, Hollstein M. Mouse models with modified p53 sequences to study cancer and ageing. Cell Death Differ 2003; 10: 44350.
  • 40
    Oren M. Decision making by p53: life, death and cancer. Cell Death Differ 2003; 10: 43142.
  • 41
    Cain K, Bratton SB, Cohen GM. The Apaf-1 apoptosome: a large caspase-activating complex. Biochimie 2002; 84: 20314.
  • 42
    Cecconi F. Apaf1 and the apoptotic machinery. Cell Death Differ 1999; 6: 108798.
  • 43
    Zou H, Henzel WJ, Liu X, Lutschg A, Wang X. Apaf-1, a human protein homologous to C. elegans CED-4, participates in cytochrome c-dependent activation of caspase-3. Cell 1997; 90: 40513.
  • 44
    Zou H, Li Y, Liu X, Wang X. An APAF-1/cytochrome c multimeric complex is a functional apoptosome that activates procaspase-9. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 1154956.
  • 45
    Jia L, Patwari Y, Srinivasula SM, Newland AC, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, Kelsey SM. Bax translocation is crucial for the sensitivity of leukaemic cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis. Oncogene 2001; 20: 481726.
  • 46
    Jia L, Patwari Y, Kelsey SM, Srinivasula SM, Agrawal SG, Alnemri ES, Newland AC. Role of Smac in human leukaemic cell apoptosis and proliferation. Oncogene 2003; 22: 158999.
  • 47
    Perkins C, Kim CN, Fang G, Bhalla KN. Overexpression of Apaf-1 promotes apoptosis of untreated and paclitaxel- or etoposide-treated HL-60 cells. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 45616.
  • 48
    Rau B, Sturm I, Lage H, Berger S, Schneider U, Hauptmann S, Wust P, Riess H, Schlag PM, Dorken B, Daniel PT. Dynamic expression profile of p21WAF1/CIP1 and Ki-67 predicts survival in rectal carcinoma treated with preoperative radiochemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: 3391401.
  • 49
    Scott CL, Schuler M, Marsden VS, Egle A, Pellegrini M, Nesic D, Gerondakis S, Nutt SL, Green DR, Strasser A. Apaf-1 and caspase-9 do not act as tumor suppressors in myc-induced lymphomagenesis or mouse embryo fibroblast transformation. J Cell Biol 2004; 164: 8996.
  • 50
    Zanon M, Piris A, Bersani I, Vegetti C, Molla A, Scarito A, Anichini A. Apoptosis protease activator protein-1 expression is dispensable for response of human melanoma cells to distinct proapoptotic agents. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 738694.