• fruit and vegetable consumption;
  • diet;
  • body mass index;
  • leanness;
  • oral cancer;
  • oropharyngeal cancer;
  • case–control study


Tobacco and alcohol use are the main risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancers, yet, dietary habits may also be of importance. Data from a series of case–control studies conducted in 9 countries worldwide (1,670 cases and 1,732 controls) were used to investigate the role of several food groups and body mass index (BMI). Low BMI significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) of cancer more than 2-fold among ever- and never-tobacco users and ever- and never-alcohol drinkers. After adjustment for potential confounders, high intake of fruits and vegetables significantly reduced the OR of cancer compared to low intake among ever-tobacco users (OR 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3–0.6), although not among never-tobacco users (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.6–2.0). Similarly, the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable consumption was present among ever-drinkers (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3–0.6), but not among never-drinkers (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6–1.6). In conclusion, low BMI increases the risk of oral cancer, and vegetables and fruits may modulate the carcinogenic effects of tobacco and alcohol. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.