• 1
    Mangelsdorf DJ, Evans RM. The RXR heterodimers and orphan receptors. Cell 1995; 83: 84159.
  • 2
    Chambon P. A decade of molecular biology of retinoic acid receptors. FASEB J 1996; 10: 94054.
  • 3
    Ahuja HS, Szanto A, Nagy L, Davies PJ. The retinoid X receptor and its ligands: versatile regulators of metabolic function, cell differentiation and cell death. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2003; 17: 2945.
  • 4
    Bastien J, Rochette-Egly C. Nuclear retinoid receptors and the transcription of retinoid target genes. Gene 2004; 328: 116.
  • 5
    Mangelsdorf DJ, Umesono K, Evans RM. The retinoid receptors. In: SpornMB, RobertsAB, GoodmanDS, eds. The retinoids: biology, chemistry and medicine, 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press, 1994. 31950.
  • 6
    Virmani AK, Rathi A, Zochbauer-Muller S, Sacchi N, Fukuyama Y, Bryant D, Maitra A, Heda S, Fong KM, Thunnissen F, Minna JD, Gazdar AF. Promoter methylation and silencing of the retinoic acid receptor-β gene in lung carcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 13037.
  • 7
    Zochbauer-Muller S, Fong KM, Virmani AK, Geradts J, Gazdar AF, Minna JD. Aberrant promoter methylation of multiple genes in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 24955.
  • 8
    Farol LT, Hymes KB. Bexarotene: a clinical review. Expect Rev Anticancer Ther 2004; 4: 1808.
  • 9
    Gottardis MM, Bischoff ED, Shirley MA, Wagoner MA, Lamph WW, Heyman RA. Chemoprevention of mammary carcinoma by LGD1069 (Targretin): an RXR selective ligand. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 556670.
  • 10
    Bischoff ED, Gottardis MM, Moon TA, Heyman RA, Lamph WW. Beyond tamoxifen: the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand LGD1069 (Targretin) causes complete regression of mammary carcinoma. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 47984.
  • 11
    Lubet RA, Christov K, Numez NP, Hursting SD, Steele VE, Juliana MM, Eto I, Grubbs CJ. Efficacy of targretin on methylnitrosourea-induced mammary cancers: prevention and therapy dose-response curves and effects on proliferation and apoptosis. Carcinogenesis 2005; 26: 4418.
  • 12
    Steele VE, Moon RC, Lubet RA, Grubbs CJ, Reddy BS, Wargovich M, McCormick DL, Pereira MA, Crowell JA, Bagheri D, Sigma CC, Boone CW, et al. Preclinical efficacy evaluation of potential chemopreventive agents in animal carcinogenesis models: methods and results from the NCI chemoprevention drug development program. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1994; 20: 3254.
  • 13
    Gunning WT, Kramer PM, Lubet RA, Steele VE, Pereira MA. Chemoprevention of vinyl carbamate-induced lung tumors in strain A mice. Experimental Lung Res 2000; 26: 75772.
  • 14
    Pereira MA, Li Y, Gunning WT, Kramer PM, Al-Yaqoub FS, Lubet RA, Steele VE, Szabo E, Tao L. Prevention of mouse lung tumors by budesonide and its modulation of biomarkers. Carcinogenesis 2002; 23: 118592.
  • 15
    MacLean G, Abu-Abed S, Dolle P, Tahayato A, Chambon P, Petkovich M. Cloning of a novel retinoic acid metabolizing cytochrome P450, CYP26B1 and comparative expression analysis with CYP26A1 during murine development. Mech Dev 2001; 107: 195201.
  • 16
    Rigas JR, Dragnev KH. Emerging role of retinoids in non-small cell lung cancer: focus on bexarotene. Oncologist 2005; 10: 2233.