• 1
    Hanahan D, Weinberg R. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 2000; 100: 5770.
  • 2
    Choi SW, Mason JB. Folate and carcinogenesis: an integrated scheme. J Nutr 2000; 130: 12932.
  • 3
    Henderson GB. Folate-binding proteins. Ann Rev Nutr 1990; 10: 31935.
  • 4
    Antony AC. Folate receptors. Ann Rev Nutr 1996; 16: 50121.
  • 5
    Parker N, Turk MJ, Westrick E, Lewis JD, Low PS, Leamon C. Folate receptor expression in carcinomas and normal tissues determined by a quantitative radioligand binding assay. Anal Biochem 2005; 338: 28493.
  • 6
    Toffoli G, Cernigoi C, Russo A, Gallo A, Bagnoli M, Boicchi M. Overexpression of folate binding protein in ovarian cancers. Int J Cancer 1997; 74: 1938.
  • 7
    Toffoli G, Russo A, Gallo A, Cernigoi C, Miotti S, Sorio R, Tumolo S, Boicchi M. Expression of folate binding protein as a prognostic factor for response to platinum-containing chemotherapy and survival in human ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer (Pred Oncol) 1998; 79: 1216.
  • 8
    Kane MA, Elwood PC, Portillo RM, Antony AC, Najfeld V, Finley A, Waxman S, Kolhouse J. Influence on immunoreactive folate-binding proteins of extracellular folate concentration in cultured human cells. J Clin Invest 1988; 81: 1398406.
  • 9
    Miotti S, Bagnoli M, Tomassetti A, Colnaghi MI, Canevari S. Interaction of folate receptor with signaling molecules lyn and Ga13 in detergent-resistant complexes from the ovary carcinoma cell lines. J Cell Sci 2000; 113: 34957.
  • 10
    Mayes PA. Structure and function of the water-soluble vitamins. In: MurrayRK, GrannerDK, MayesPA, RodwellV, eds. Harper's biochemistry, 25th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. 62741.
  • 11
    Blount BC, Mack MM, Wehr CM, MacGregor JT, Hiatt RA, Wang G, Wickramasinghe SN, Everson RB, Ames B. Folate deficiency causes uracil misincorporation into human DNA and chromosome breakage: implications for cancer and neuronal damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 32905.
  • 12
    Stern LL, Mason JB, Selhub J, Choi S. Genomic DNA hypomethylation, a characteristic of most cancers, is present in peripheral leukocytes of individuals who are homozygous for the C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2000; 9: 84953.
  • 13
    Strathdee G, Appleton K, Illand M, Millan DW, Sargent J, Paul J, Brown R. Primary ovarian carcinomas display multiple methylator phenotypes involving known tumor suppressor genes. Am J Pathol 2001; 158: 11217.
  • 14
    Zhang SM, Willett WC, Selhub J, Hunter DJ, Giovannucci EL, Holmes MD, Colditz GA, Hankinson S. Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 37380.
  • 15
    Shrubsole MJ, Jin F, Dai Q, Shu XO, Potter JD, Hebert JR, Gao YT, Zheng W. Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 713641.
  • 16
    Giovannucci E. Epidemiologic studies of folate and colorectal neoplasia: a review. J Nutr 2002; 132: 2350S55S.
  • 17
    Feigelson HS, Jonas CR, Robertson AS, Mc Cullough ML, Thun MJ, Calle E. Alcohol, folate, methionine, and risk of incident breast cancer in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2003; 12: 1614.
  • 18
    Slattery ML, Schaffer D, Edwards SL, Ma KN, Potter J. Are dietary factors involved in DNA methylation associated with colon cancer? Nutr Cancer 1997; 28: 5262.
  • 19
    Kim Y-I. Role of folate in colon cancer development and progression. J Nutr 2003; 133: 3731S9S.
  • 20
    Elwood PC, Nachmanoff K, Saikawa Y, Page ST, Pacheco P, Roberts S, Chung K-N. The divergent 5 termini of the human folate receptor (hFR) mRNAs originate from two tissue-specific promoters and alternative splicing: characterization of the hFR gene structure. Biochemistry 1997; 36: 146778.
  • 21
    Rijnboutt S, Jansen G, Posthuma G, Hynes JB, Schornagel JH, Strous G. Endocytosis of GPI-linked membrane folate receptor-α. J Cell Biol 1996; 132: 3547.
  • 22
    Kaufman Y, Drori S, Cole PD, Kamen BA, Sirota J, Ifergan I, Arush MW, Elhasid R, Sahar D, Kaspers GJ, Jansen G, Matherly LH, et al. Reduced folate carrier mutations are not the mechanism underlying methotrexate resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer 2004; 100: 77382.
  • 23
    Atkins P. Physical chemistry, 6th ed. New York: WH Freeman and Company, 1997.
  • 24
    Kelly P, McPartlin J, Goggins M, Weir DG, Scott J. Unmetabolized folic acid in serum: acute studies in subjects consuming fortified food and supplements. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 17905.
  • 25
    Lucock M, Yates Z. Folic acid—vitamin and panacea or genetic time bomb? Nat Rev Genet 2005; 6: 23540.
  • 26
    Wang X, Shen F, Freisheim JH, Gentry LE, Ratnam M. Differential stereospecificities and affinities of folate receptor isoforms for folate compounds and antifolates. Biochem Pharmacol 1992; 44: 1898901.
  • 27
    Kane MA, Waxman S. Biology of disease. Role of folate binding proteins in folate metabolism. Lab Invest 1989; 60: 73746.
  • 28
    Herbert VD, Colman N. Folic acid and vitamin B12. In: ShilsME, YoungV, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1988. 388416.
  • 29
    Kamen BA, Smith A. A review of folate receptor α cycling and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate accumulation with an emphasis on cell models in vitro. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 108597.
  • 30
    Kamen BA, Wang MT, Streckfuss AJ, Peryea X, Anderson R. Delivery of folates to the cytoplasm of MA104 cells is mediated by a surface membrane receptor that recycles. J Biol Chem 1988; 263: 136029.
  • 31
    Rothberg KG, Ying YS, Kolhouse JF, Kamen BA, Anderson R. The glycophospholipid-linked folate receptor internalizes folate without entering the clathrin-coated pit endocytic pathway. J Cell Biol 1990; 110: 63749.
  • 32
    Mayor S, Rothberg KG, Maxfield F. Sequestration of GPI-anchored proteins in caveolae triggered by cross-linking. Science 1994; 264: 194851.
  • 33
    Ritter TE, Fajardo O, Matsue H, Anderson RGW, Lacey S. Folate receptors targeted to clathrin-coated pits cannot regulate vitamin uptake. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 38248.
  • 34
    Simons K, Ikonen E. Functional rafts in cell membranes. Nature 1997; 387: 56972.
  • 35
    Le Roy C, Wrana J. Clathrin- and non-clathrin-mediated endocytic regulation of cell signalling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2005; 6: 11226.
  • 36
    Sabharanjak S, Mayor S. Folate receptor endocytosis and trafficking. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 1099109.
  • 37
    Mayor S, Sabharanjak S, Maxfield F. Cholesterol-dependent retention of GPI-anchored proteins in endosomes. EMBO J 1998; 17: 462638.
  • 38
    Chatterjee S, Smith ER, Hanada K, Stevens VL, Mayor S. GPI anchoring leads to sphingolipid-dependent retention of endocytosed proteins in the recycling endosomal compartment. EMBO J 2001; 20: 158392.
  • 39
    Corona G, Giannini F, Fabris M, Toffoli G, Boiocchi M. Role of folate receptor and reduced folate carrier in the transport of 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer 1998; 75: 12533.
  • 40
    Spinella MJ, Brigle KE, Sierra EE, Goldman I. Distinguishing between folate receptor-α-mediated transport and reduced folate carrier-mediated transport in L1210 leukemia cells. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 78429.
  • 41
    Dixon KH, Mulligan T, Chung KN, Elwood PC, Cowan K. Effects of folate receptor expression following stable transfection into wild type and methotrexate transport-deficient ZR-75–1 human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 241407.
  • 42
    Brigle KE, Seither RL, Westin EH, Goldman I. Increased expression and genomic organization of a folate-binding protein homologous to the human placental isoform in L1210 murine leukemia cell lines with a defective reduced folate carrier. J Biol Chem 1994; 269: 426772.
  • 43
    Kamen BA, Smith AK, Anderson R. The folate receptor works in tandem with a probenecid-sensitive carrier in MA104 cells in vitro. J Clin Invest 1991; 87: 14429.
  • 44
    Ma DW, Finnell RH, Davidson LA, Callaway ES, Spiegelstein O, Piedrahita JA, Salbaum JM, Kappen C, Weeks BR, James J, Bozinov D, Lupton JR, et al. Folate transport gene inactivation in mice increases sensitivity to colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 88797.
  • 45
    Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Zhu H, Baker MW, Neri E, Finnell RH. Maternal periconceptional vitamin use, genetic variation of infant reduced folate carrier (A80G), and risk of spina bifida. Am J Med Genet 2002; 108: 16.
  • 46
    Shaw GM, Zhu H, Lammer EJ, Yang W, Finnell R. Genetic variation of infant reduced folate carrier (A80G) and risk of orofacial and conotruncal heart defects. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158: 74752.
  • 47
    Saikawa Y, Price D, Hance KW, Chen TY, Elwood P. Structural and functional analysis of the human KB cell folate receptor gene P4 promoter: cooperation of three clustered Sp1-binding sites with initiator region for basal promoter activity. Biochemistry 1995; 34: 995161.
  • 48
    Antony AC. The biological chemistry of folate receptors. Blood 1992; 79: 280720.
  • 49
    Antony AC, Kane MA, Portillo RM, Elwood PC, Kolhouse J. Studies of the role of a particulate folate-binding protein in the uptake of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate by cultured human KB cells. J Biol Chem 1985; 260: 149117.
  • 50
    Shen F, Wu M, Ross JF, Miller D, Ratnam M. Folate receptor type γ is primarily a secretory protein due to lack of an efficient signal for glycosylphosphatidylinositol modification: protein characterization and cell type specificity. Biochemistry 1995; 34: 56605.
  • 51
    Elnakat H, Ratnam M. Distribution, functionality and gene regulation of folate receptor isoforms: implications in targeted therapy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 106784.
  • 52
    Ross JF, Wang H, Behm FG, Mathew P, Wu M, Booth R, Ratnam M. Folate receptor β is a neutrophilic lineage marker and is differentially expressed in myeloid leukemia. Cancer 1999; 85: 34857.
  • 53
    Selhub J, Emmanouel D, Stavropoulos T, Arnold R. Renal folate absorption and the kidney folate binding protein. I. Urinary clearance studies. Am J Physiol 1987; 252: F7506.
  • 54
    Selhub J, Nakamura S, Carone F. Renal folate absorption and the kidney folate binding protein. II. Microinfusion studies. Am J Physiol 1987; 252: F75760.
  • 55
    Ramaekers VT, Blau N. Cerebral folate deficiency. Dev Med Child Neurol 2004; 46: 84351.
  • 56
    Kelley KM, Rowan BG, Ratnam M. Modulation of the folate receptor α gene by the estrogen receptor: mechanism and implications in tumor targeting. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 28208.
  • 57
    Rochman H, Selhub J, Karrison T. Folate binding protein and the estrogen receptor in breast cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 1985; 8: 715.
  • 58
    Evans C-O, Reddy P, Brat DJ, O'Neill EB, Craige B, Stevens VL, Oyesiku N. Differential expression of folate receptor in pituitary adenomas. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 421824.
  • 59
    Veggian R, Fasolato S, Menard S, Minucci D, Pizzetti P, Regazzoni M, Tagliabue E, Colnaghi MI. Immunohistochemical reactivity of a monoclonal antibody prepared against human ovarian carcinoma on normal and pathological female genital tissues. Tumori 1989; 75: 5103.
  • 60
    Wu M, Gunning W, Ratnam M. Expression of folate receptor type α in relation to cell type, malignancy, and differentiation in ovary, uterus, and cervix. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1999: 77582.
  • 61
    Sun XL, Murphy BR, Li QJ, Gullapalli S, Mackins J, Jayaram HN, Srivastava A, Antony AC. Transduction of folate receptor cDNA into cervical carcinoma cells using recombinant adeno-associated virions delays cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest 1995; 96: 153547.
  • 62
    Antony AC, Tang YS, Khan RA, Biju MP, Xiao X, Li QJ, Sun XL, Jayaram HN, Stabler SP. Translational upregulation of folate receptors is mediated by homocysteine via RNA-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 interactions. J Clin Invest 2004; 113: 285301.
  • 63
    Pillai MR, Chacko P, Kesari LA, Jayaprakash PG, Jayaram HN, Antony AC. Expression of folate receptors and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 in women with human papillomavirus mediated transformation of cervical tissue to cancer. J Clin Pathol 2003; 56: 56974.
  • 64
    Campbell IG, Jones TA, Foulkes WD, Trowsdale J. Folate-binding protein is a marker for ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 532938.
  • 65
    Brown D, Waneck GL. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. J Am Soc Nephrol 1992; 3: 895906.
  • 66
    Tran T, Shatnawi A, Zheng X, Kelley KM, Ratnam M. Enhancement of folate receptor α expression in tumor cells through the glucocorticoid receptor: a promising means to improved tumor detection and targeting. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 443141.
  • 67
    Page ST, Owen WC, Price K, Elwood P. Expression of the human placental folate receptor transcript is regulated in human tissues. Organization and full nucleotide sequence of the gene. J Mol Biol 1993; 229: 117583.
  • 68
    Sadasivan E, Cedeno MM, Rothenberg S. Characterization of the gene encoding a folate-binding protein expressed in human placenta. Identification of promoter activity in a G-rich SP1 site linked with the tandemly repeated GGAAG motif for the ets encoded GA-binding protein. J Biol Chem 1994; 269: 472535.
  • 69
    Matsue H, Rothberg KG, Takashima A, Kamen GA, Anderson RGW, Lacey S. Folate receptor allows cells to grow in low concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89: 60069.
  • 70
    Luhrs CA, Raskin CA, Durbin R, Wu B, Sadasivan E, McAllister W, Rothenberg S. Transfection of a glycosylated phosphatidylinositol-anchored folate binding protein completmentary DNA provides cells with the ability to survive in low folate medium. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 8407.
  • 71
    Hsueh CT, Dolnick B. Altered folate binding protein mRNA stability in KB cells grown in folate-deficient medium. Biochem Pharmacol 1993; 45: 253745.
  • 72
    Sadasivan E, Rothenberg SP. The complete amino acid sequence of a human folate binding protein from KB cells determined from the cDNA. J Biol Chem 1989; 264: 580611.
  • 73
    Bagnoli M, Tomassetti A, Figini M, Flati S, Dolo V, Canevari S, Miotti S. Downmodulation of caveolin-1 expression in human ovarian carcinoma is directly related to folate receptor overexpression. Oncogene 2000; 19: 475463.
  • 74
    Sun XL, Antony AC. Evidence that a specific interaction between an 18-base cis-element in the 5′-untranslated region of human folate receptor-α mRNA and a 46-kDa cytosolic trans-factor is critical for translation. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 2553947.
  • 75
    Roberts SJ, Chung KN, Nachmanoff K, Elwood P. Tissue-specific promoters of the α human folate receptor gene yield transcripts with divergent 5′ leader sequences and different translational efficiencies. Biochem J 1997; 326: 43947.
  • 76
    Tomassetti A, Mangiarotti F, Mazzi M, Sfoorzini S, Miotti S, Galmozzi E, Elwood PC, Canevari S. The variant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 activates the P1 promoter of the human-folate receptor gene in ovarian carcinoma. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 696704.
  • 77
    Sadasivan E, Regec A, Rothenberg S. The half-life of the transcript encoding the folate receptor α in KB cells is reduced by cytosolic proteins expressed in folate-replete and not in folate-depleted cells. Gene 2002; 291: 14958.
  • 78
    Yi P, Melnyk S, Pogribna M, Pogribny IP, Hine RJ, James S. Increase in plasma homocysteine associated with parallel increases in plasma S-adenosylhomocysteine and lymphocyte DNA hypomethylation. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 2931823.
  • 79
    Jhaveri MS, Wagner C, Trepel J. Impact of extracellular folate levels on global gene expression. Mol Pharmacol 2001; 60: 128895.
  • 80
    Hsueh CT, Dolnick B. Regulation of folate binding protein gene expression by DNA methylation in methotrexate-resistant KB cells. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 47: 101927.
  • 81
    Bolton JA, Wood SA, Kennedy D, Don RH, Mattick J. Retinoic acid-dependent upregulation of mouse folate receptor-α expression in embryonic stem cells, and conservation of alternative splicing patterns. Gene 1999; 230: 21524.
  • 82
    Piedrahita JA, Oetama B, Bennett GD, van Waes J, Kamen BA, Richardson J, Lacey SW, Anderson RGW, Finnell R. Mice lacking the folic acid-binding protein Folbp1 are defective in early embryonic development. Nat Genet 1999; 23: 22832.
  • 83
    Orr RB, Kamen B. Identification of a point mutation in the folate receptor gene that confers a dominant negative phenotype. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 84752.
  • 84
    Mangiarotti F, Miotti S, Galmozzi E, Mazzi M, Sforzini S, Canevari S, Tomassetti A. Functional effect of point mutations in the α-folate receptor gene of CABA I ovarian carcinoma cells. J Cell Biochem 2001; 81: 48898.
  • 85
    Trembath D, Sherbondy AL, Vandyke DC, Shaw GM, Todoroff K, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH, Marker S, Lerner G, Murray J. Analysis of select folate pathway genes, PAX3, and human T in a midwestern neural tube defect population. Teratology 1999; 59: 33141.
  • 86
    Barber RC, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Greer KA, Biela TA, Lacey SW, Wasserman CR, Finnell R. Lack of association between mutations in the folate receptor-α gene and spina bifida. Am J Med Genet 1998; 76: 3107.
  • 87
    De Marco P, Moroni A, Merello E, de Franchis R, Andreussi L, Finnell RH, Barber RC, Cama A, Capra V. Folate pathway gene alterations in patients with neural tube defects. Am J Med Genet 2000; 95: 21623.
  • 88
    Nilsson TK, Borjel A. Novel insertion and deletion mutations in the 5′-UTR of the folate receptor-α gene: an additional contributor to hyperhomocysteinemia? Clin Biochem 2004; 37: 2249.
  • 89
    Bagnoli M, Canevari S, Figini M, Mezzanzanica D, Raspagliesi F, Tomassetti A, Miotti S. A step further in understanding the biology of the folate receptor in ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2003; 88: S1404.
  • 90
    Low MG. The glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor of membrane proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1989; 988: 42754.
  • 91
    Fisher DE. Apoptosis in cancer therapy: crossing the threshold. Cell 1994; 78: 53942.
  • 92
    Righetti SC, Della Torre G, Pilotti S, Menard S, Ottone F, Colnaghi MI, Pierotti MA, Lavarino C, Cornarotti M, Oriana S, Bohm S, Bresciani GL, et al. A comparative study of p53 gene mutations, protein accumulation, and response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced ovarian carcinoma. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 68993.
  • 93
    Antony AC. Folate receptors: reflections on a personal odyssey and a perspective on unfolding truth. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 105966.
  • 94
    Leamon CP, Low P. Delivery of macromolecules into living cells: a method that exploits folate receptor endocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 55726.
  • 95
    Leamon CP, Low P. Cytotoxicity of momordin-folate conjugates in cultured human cells. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 2496671.
  • 96
    Leamon CP, Pastan I, Low P. Cytotoxicity of folate-pseudomonas exotoxin conjugates toward tumor cells. J Biol Chem 1993; 268: 2484754.
  • 97
    Low PS. Folate receptor-targeted drugs for cancer and inflammatory diseases. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 10558.
  • 98
    Leamon CP, Low P. Folate-mediated targeting: from diagnostics to drug and gene delivery. Drug Discov Today 2001; 6: 4451.
  • 99
    Gabizon A, Shmeeda H, Horowitz AT, Zalipsky S. Tumor cell targeting of liposome-entrapped drugs with phospholipids-anchored folic acid-PEG conjugates. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 117792.
  • 100
    Zhao XB, Lee R. Tumor-selective targeted delivery of genes and antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides via the folate receptor. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 1193204.
  • 101
    Ward CM, Pechar M, Oupicky D, Ulbrich K, Seymour L. Modification of pLL/DNA complexes with a multivalent hydrophilic polymer permits folate-mediated targeting in vitro and prolonged plasma circulation in vivo. J Gene Med 2002; 4: 53647.
  • 102
    Haensler J, Szoka FC,Jr. Polyamidoamine cascade polymers mediate efficient transfection of cells in culture. Bioconjug Chem 1993; 4: 3729.
  • 103
    Konda SD, Aref M, Brechbiel M, Wiener E. Development of a tumor-targeting MR contrast agent using the high-affinity folate receptor: work in progress. Invest Radiol 2000; 35: 507.
  • 104
    Coney LR, Tomassetti A, Carayannopoulos L, Frasca V, Kamen BA, Colnaghi MI, Aurawski VJ. Cloning of a tumor-associated antigen: MOv18 and MOv19 antibodies recognize a folate-binding protein. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 612532.
  • 105
    Lu Y, Low PS. Immunotherapy of folate receptor-expressing tumors: review of recent advances and future prospects. J Control Release 2003; 91: 1729.
  • 106
    Ke C-Y, Mathias CJ, Green M. Folate-receptor-targeted radionuclide imaging agents. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 114360.
  • 107
    Leamon CP, Parker MA, Vlahov IR, Xu LC, Reddy JA, Vetzel M, Douglas N. Synthesis and biological evaluation of EC20: a new folate-derived, (99m)Tc-based radiopharmaceutical. Bioconjug Chem 2002: 120010.
  • 108
    Mantovani LT, Miotti S, Menard S, Canevari S, Raspagliesi F, Bottini C, Bottero F, Colnaghi M. Folate binding protein distribution in normal tissues and biological fluids from ovarian carcinoma patients as detected by the monoclonal antibodies MOv18 and MOv19. Eur J Cancer 1994; 30A: 3639.
  • 109
    Rothenberg SP, da Costa MP, Sequeira JM, Cracco J, Roberts JL, Weedon J, Quadros E. Autoantibodies against folate receptors in women with a pregnancy complicated by a neural-tube defect. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 13442.
  • 110
    Ramaekers VT, Rothenberg SP, Sequeira JM, Opladen T, Blau N, Quadros EV, Selhub J. Autoantibodies to folate receptors in the cerebral folate deficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 198591.
  • 111
    Jackman AL, Theti DS, Gibbs D. Antifolates targeted specifically to the folate receptor. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 111125.
  • 112
    Ross JF, Chaudhuri PK, Ratnam M. Differential regulation of folate receptor isoforms in normal and malignant tissues in vivo and in established cell lines. Physiologic and clinical implications. Cancer 1994; 73: 243243.
  • 113
    Holm J, Hansen SI, Hoier-Madsen M, Christensen TB, Nichols CW. Characterization of a high-affinity folate receptor in normal and malignant human testicular tissue. Biosci Rep 1999; 19: 57180.
  • 114
    Theti DS, Jackman A. The role of α-folate receptor-mediated transport in the antitumor activity of antifolate drugs. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 10809.
  • 115
    Antony AC, Utley CS, Marcell PD, Kolhouse JF. Isolation, characterization, and comparison of the solubilized particulate and soluble folate binding proteins from human milk. J Biol Chem 1982; 257: 100819.