We previously reported the chemopreventive ability of a prenyloxycoumarin auraptene in chemically induced carcinogenesis in digestive tract, liver and urinary bladder of rodents. The current study was designed to determine whether dietary feeding of auraptene and its related prenyloxycoumarin collinin can inhibit colitis-related mouse colon carcinogenesis. The experimental diets, containing the compounds at 2 dose levels (0.01 and 0.05%), were fed for 17 weeks to male CD-1 (ICR) mice that were initiated with a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg body weight) and promoted by 1% (w/v) DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Their tumor inhibitory effects were assessed at week 20 by counting the incidence and multiplicity of colonic neoplasms and the immunohistochemical expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling index, apoptotic index, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine in colonic epithelial malignancy. Feeding with auraptene or collinin, at both doses, significantly inhibited the occurrence of colonic adenocarcinoma. In addition, feeding with auraptene or collinin significantly lowered the positive rates of PCNA, COX-2, iNOS and nitrotyrosine in adenocarcinomas, while the treatment increased the apoptotic index in colonic malignancies. Our findings may suggest that certain prenyloxycoumarins, such as auraptene and collinin, could serve as an effective agent against colitis-related colon cancer development in rodents. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.