We previously reported that, although asthma did not increase the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), the risk from pesticide exposures was higher among asthmatics than that among nonasthmatics. To further evaluate this finding, we analyzed data from a population-based case–control study of NHL conducted in Iowa, Detroit, Los Angeles and Seattle. Cases (n = 668) diagnosed with NHL from 1998 to 2000 and controls (n = 543) randomly selected from the same geographical areas as that of the cases were included in this analysis. Odds ratios (OR) for the risk of NHL from potential occupational exposure to pesticides tended to be higher among asthmatics (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 0.3–9.1) when compared with that among nonasthmatics (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.6–1.5). The risks of NHL associated with pesticide exposure were also higher among asthmatics who had history of hospitalization (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.2–29.0) or daily medication for asthma (OR = infinite) than those among asthmatics who did not have such histories. Our results support the previous finding that the risk of NHL from pesticide exposure may be greater among asthmatics. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.