• 1
    Berta L, Fronticelli Baldelli C, Fazzari A, Radice E, Bargoni A, Frairia R, Gaetini A. Sex steroid receptors, secondary bile acids and colorectal cancer. A possible mechanism of interaction. Panminerva Med 2003; 45: 2616.
  • 2
    Ferro P, Catalano MG, Dell'Eva R, Fortunati N, Pfeffer U. The androgen receptor CAG repeat: a modifier of carcinogenesis? Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002; 193: 10920.
  • 3
    Bises G, Kallay E, Weiland T, Wrba F, Wenzl E, Bonner E, Kriwanek S, Obrist P, Cross HS. 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase expression in normal and malignant human colon. J Histochem Cytochem 2004; 52: 9859.
  • 4
    Cross HS, Kallay E, Khorchide M, Lechner D. Regulation of extrarenal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3–relevance for colonic cancer prevention and therapy. Mol Aspects Med 2003; 24: 45965.
  • 5
    Baker AR, McDonnell DP, Hughes M, Crisp TM, Mangelsdorf DJ, Haussler MR, Pike JW, Shine J, O'Malley BW. Cloning and expression of full-length cDNA encoding human vitamin D receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85: 32948.
  • 6
    Peehl DM, Feldman D. Interaction of nuclear receptor ligands with the Vitamin D signaling pathway in prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004; 92: 30715.
  • 7
    Murthy S, Agoulnik IU, Weigel NL. Androgen receptor signaling and vitamin D receptor action in prostate cancer cells. Prostate 2005; 64: 36272.
  • 8
    Ting HJ, Bao BY, Hsu CL, Lee YF. Androgen-receptor coregulators mediate the suppressive effect of androgen signals on vitamin D receptor activity. Endocrine 2005; 26: 19.
  • 9
    Ahonen MH, Zhuang YH, Aine R, Ylikomi T, Tuohimaa P. Androgen receptor and vitamin D receptor in human ovarian cancer: growth stimulation and inhibition by ligands. Int J Cancer 2000; 86: 406.
  • 10
    Martinez ME, Willett WC. Calcium, vitamin D, and colorectal cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 1638.
  • 11
    Slattery ML, Neuhausen SL, Hoffman M, Caan B, Curtin K, Ma KN, Samowitz W. Dietary calcium, vitamin D, VDR genotypes and colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 2004; 111: 7506.
  • 12
    Kampman E, Slattery ML, Caan B, Potter JD. Calcium, vitamin D, sunshine exposure, dairy products and colon cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 45966.
  • 13
    Giovannucci E. The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: a review (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2005; 16: 8395.
  • 14
    Park K, Woo M, Nam J, Kim JC. Start codon polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Lett 2005 (in press).
  • 15
    Kim HS, Newcomb PA, Ulrich CM, Keener CL, Bigler J, Farin FM, Bostick RM, Potter JD. Vitamin D receptor polymorphism and the risk of colorectal adenomas: evidence of interaction with dietary vitamin D and calcium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 86974.
  • 16
    Ingles SA, Wang J, Coetzee GA, Lee ER, Frankl HD, Haile RW. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and risk of colorectal adenomas (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001; 12: 60714.
  • 17
    Slattery ML, Yakumo K, Hoffman M, Neuhausen S. Variants of the VDR gene and risk of colon cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001; 12: 35964.
  • 18
    Wong HL, Seow A, Arakawa K, Lee HP, Yu MC, Ingles SA. Vitamin D receptor start codon polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk: effect modification by dietary calcium and fat in Singapore Chinese. Carcinogenesis 2003; 24: 10915.
  • 19
    Peters U, McGlynn KA, Chatterjee N, Gunter E, Garcia-Closas M, Rothman N, Sinha R. Vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin D receptor polymorphism in colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 126774.
  • 20
    Ingles SA, Haile RW, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN, Nakaichi G, Shi CY, Yu MC, Ross RK, Coetzee GA. Strength of linkage disequilibrium between two vitamin D receptor markers in five ethnic groups: implications for association studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6: 938.
  • 21
    Shakoori AR, van Wijnen AJ, Bortell R, Owen TA, Stein JL, Lian JB, Stein GS. Variations in vitamin D receptor transcription factor complexes associated with the osteocalcin gene vitamin D responsive element in osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells. J Cell Biochem 1994; 55: 21829.
  • 22
    Staal A, van Wijnen AJ, Birkenhager JC, Pols HA, Prahl J, DeLuca H, Gaub MP, Lian JB, Stein GS, van Leeuwen JP, Stein JL. Distinct conformations of vitamin D receptor/retinoid X receptor-α heterodimers are specified by dinucleotide differences in the vitamin D-responsive elements of the osteocalcin and osteopontin genes. Mol Endocrinol 1996; 10: 144456.
  • 23
    Whitfield GK, Remus LS, Jurutka PW, Zitzer H, Oza AK, Dang HT, Haussler CA, Galligan MA, Thatcher ML, Encinas Dominguez C, Haussler MR. Functionally relevant polymorphisms in the human nuclear vitamin D receptor gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001; 177: 14559.
  • 24
    Slattery ML, Murtaugh M, Caan B, Wolff R, Ma KN, Samowitz W. Association between dietary fats and VDR genotypes and colon and rectal cancers. Int J Cancer Prev 2004; 1: 193205.
  • 25
    Ingles SA, Ross RK, Yu MC, Irvine RA, La Pera G, Haile RW, Coetzee GA. Association of prostate cancer risk with genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor and androgen receptor. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 16670.
  • 26
    Ding D, Xu L, Menon M, Reddy GP, Barrack ER. Effect of a short CAG (glutamine) repeat on human androgen receptor function. Prostate 2004; 58: 2332.
  • 27
    Krithivas K, Yurgalevitch SM, Mohr BA, Wilcox CJ, Batter SJ, Brown M, Longcope C, McKinlay JB, Kantoff PW. Evidence that the CAG repeat in the androgen receptor gene is associated with the age-related decline in serum androgen levels in men. J Endocrinol 1999; 162: 13742.
  • 28
    Westberg L, Baghaei F, Rosmond R, Hellstrand M, Landen M, Jansson M, Holm G, Bjorntorp P, Eriksson E. Polymorphisms of the androgen receptor gene and the estrogen receptor β gene are associated with androgen levels in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 25628.
  • 29
    Hoque A, Albanes D, Lippman SM, Spitz MR, Taylor PR, Klein EA, Thompson IM, Goodman P, Stanford JL, Crowley JJ, Coltman CA, Santella RM. Molecular epidemiologic studies within the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). Cancer Causes Control 2001; 12: 62733.
  • 30
    Slattery ML, Potter J, Caan B, Edwards S, Coates A, Ma KN, Berry TD. Energy balance and colon cancer–beyond physical activity. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 7580.
  • 31
    Edwards S, Slattery ML, Mori M, Berry TD, Caan BJ, Palmer P, Potter JD. Objective system for interviewer performance evaluation for use in epidemiologic studies. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 140: 10208.
  • 32
    Slattery ML, Caan BJ, Duncan D, Berry TD, Coates A, Kerber R. A computerized diet history questionnaire for epidemiologic studies. J Am Diet Assoc 1994; 94: 7616.
  • 33
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Confidence interval estimation of interaction. Epidemiology 1992; 3: 4526.
  • 34
    Slattery ML, Sweeney C, Murtaugh M, Ma K-Ni, Wolff RK, Potter JD, Caan BJ, Samowitz W. Associations between ERα, ERβ, AR genotypes and colon and rectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 293642.
  • 35
    Garland CF, Garland FC. Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer? Int J Epidemiol 1980; 9: 22731.
  • 36
    Garland C, Shekelle RB, Barrett-Connor E, Criqui MH, Rossof AH, Paul O. Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal cancer: a 19-year prospetive study in men. Lancet 1985: 3079.
  • 37
    Young MR, Ihm J, Lozano Y, Wright MA, Prechel MM. Treating tumor-bearing mice with vitamin D3 diminishes tumor-induced myelopoiesis and associated immunosuppression, and reduces tumor metastasis and recurrence. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1995; 41: 3745.
  • 38
    Schwartz GG, Hill CC, Oeler TA, Becich MJ, Bahnson RR. 1,25-Dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-vitamin D3 and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vivo. Urology 1995; 46: 3659.
  • 39
    Konety BR, Schwartz GG, Acierno JS,Jr, Becich MJ, Getzenberg RH. The role of vitamin D in normal prostate growth and differentiation. Cell Growth Differ 1996; 7: 156370.
  • 40
    Young MR, Lozano Y, Ihm J, Wright MA, Prechel MM. Vitamin D3 treatment of tumor bearers can stimulate immune competence and reduce tumor growth when treatment coincides with a heightened presence of natural suppressor cells. Cancer Lett 1996; 104: 15361.
  • 41
    Hayes CE, Nashold FE, Spach KM, Pedersen LB. The immunological functions of the vitamin D endocrine system. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2003; 49: 277300.
  • 42
    Jurutka PW, Remus LS, Whitfield GK, Thompson PD, Hsieh JC, Zitzer H, Tavakkoli P, Galligan MA, Dang HT, Haussler CA, Haussler MR. The polymorphic N terminus in human vitamin D receptor isoforms influences transcriptional activity by modulating interaction with transcription factor IIB. Mol Endocrinol 2000; 14: 40120.
  • 43
    MacDonald PN, Dowd DR, Haussler MR. New insight into the structure and functions of the vitamin D receptor. Semin Nephrol 1994; 14: 10118.
  • 44
    Guy M, Lowe LC, Bretherton-Watt D, Mansi JL, Colston KW. Approaches to evaluating the association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with breast cancer risk. Recent Results Cancer Res 2003; 164: 4354.
  • 45
    MacDonald PN, Sherman DR, Dowd DR, Jefcoat SC,Jr, DeLisle RK. The vitamin D receptor interacts with general transcription factor IIB. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 474852.
  • 46
    MacDonald PN, Baudino TA, Tokumaru H, Dowd DR, Zhang C. Vitamin D receptor and nuclear receptor coactivators: crucial interactions in vitamin D-mediated transcription. Steroids 2001; 66: 1716.
  • 47
    Izbicki JR, Schmitz R, Kamran D, Izbicki W. Androgens as promoters of colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Detect Prev 1983; 6: 35562.
  • 48
    Ferro P, Catalano MG, Raineri M, Reato G, dell'Eva R, Risio M, Foa R, Fortunati N, Pfeffer U. Somatic alterations of the androgen receptor CAG repeat in human colon cancer delineate a novel mutation pathway independent of microsatellite instability. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2000; 123: 3540.
  • 49
    Mulholland DJ, Cheng H, Reid K, Rennie PS, Nelson CC. The androgen receptor can promote β-catenin nuclear translocation independently of adenomatous polyposis coli. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 1793343.