• 1
    IKN. Kankerregistratie Nederland. Accessed 27th April 2005.
  • 2
    Jones R, Adel-Alvarez LA, Alvarez OR, Broaddus R, Das S. Arachidonic acid and colorectal carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Biochem 2003; 253: 1419.
  • 3
    Siezen CL, van Leeuwen AI, Kram NR, Luken ME, van Kranen HJ, Kampman E. Colorectal adenoma risk is modified by the interplay between polymorphisms in arachidonic acid pathway genes and fish consumption. Carcinogenesis 2005; 26: 44957.
  • 4
    Dubois RN, Giardiello FM, Smalley WE. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, eicosanoids, and colorectal cancer prevention. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1996; 25: 77391.
  • 5
    Dong M, Guda K, Nambiar PR, Rezaie A, Belinsky GS, Lambeau G, Giardina C, Rosenberg DW. Inverse association between phospholipase A2 and COX-2 expression during mouse colon tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 2003; 24: 30715.
  • 6
    MacPhee M, Chepenik KP, Liddell RA, Nelson KK, Siracusa LD, Buchberg AM. The secretory phospholipase A2 gene is a candidate for the Mom1 locus, a major modifier of ApcMin-induced intestinal neoplasia. Cell 1995; 81: 95766.
  • 7
    Shureiqi I, Wojno KJ, Poore JA, Reddy RG, Moussalli MJ, Spindler SA, Greenson JK, Normolle D, Hasan AA, Lawrence TS, Brenner DE. Decreased 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid levels and 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression in human colon cancers. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20: 198595.
  • 8
    Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors and cancers: complex stories. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4: 6170.
  • 9
    Schoonjans K, Staels B, Auwerx J. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARS) and their effects on lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1996; 1302: 93109.
  • 10
    Wang D, Wang H, Shi Q, Katkuri S, Walhi W, Desvergne B, Das SK, Dey SK, Dubois RN. Prostaglandin E(2) promotes colorectal adenoma growth via transactivation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ. Cancer Cell 2004; 6: 28595.
  • 11
    Sharma C, Pradeep A, Wong L, Rana A, Rana B. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation can regulate β-catenin levels via a proteasome-mediated and adenomatous polyposis coli-independent pathway. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 3558394.
  • 12
    Girnun GD, Smith WM, Drori S, Sarraf P, Mueller E, Eng C, Nambiar P, Rosenberg DW, Bronson RT, Edelmann W, Kucherlapati R, Gonzalez FJ, et al. APC-dependent suppression of colon carcinogenesis by PPARγ. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 137716.
  • 13
    Gupta RA, Dubois RN. Controversy: PPARγ as a target for treatment of colorectal cancer. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002; 283: G266G269.
  • 14
    The International HapMap Consortium. The International HapMap Project. Nature 2003; 426: 78996.
  • 15
    Sebastiani P, Lazarus R, Weiss ST, Kunkel LM, Kohane IS, Ramoni MF. Minimal haplotype tagging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100: 99005.
  • 16
    Fallin D, Cohen A, Essioux L, Chumakov I, Blumenfeld M, Cohen D, Schork NJ. Genetic analysis of case/control data using estimated haplotype frequencies: application to APOE locus variation and Alzheimer's disease. Genome Res 2001; 11: 14351.
  • 17
    Potter JD. Colorectal cancer: molecules and populations. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 91632.
  • 18
    Bartsch H, Nair J, Owen RW. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancers of the breast and colorectum: emerging evidence for their role as risk modifiers. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20: 220918.
  • 19
    Roynette CE, Calder PC, Dupertuis YM, Pichard C. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colon cancer prevention. Clin Nutr 2004; 23: 13951.
  • 20
    Norat T, Bingham S, Ferrari P, Slimani N, Jenab M, Mazuir M, Overvad K. Meat, fish and colorectal cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 90616.
  • 21
    Busstra MC, Siezen CL, Grubben MJ, van Kranen HJ, Nagengast FM, van't Veer P. Tissue levels of fish fatty acids and risk of colorectal adenomas: a case–control study (Netherlands). Cancer Causes Control 2003; 14: 26976.
  • 22
    Cox DG, Pontes C, Guino E, Navarro M, Osorio A, Canzian F, Moreno V. Polymorphisms in prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2/COX2) and risk of colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 2004; 91: 33943.
  • 23
    Verschuren WMM, van Leer EM, Blokstra A. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Netherlands. Neth J Cardiol 1993; 6: 20510.
  • 24
    de Waard F, Collette HJ, Rombach JJ, Baanders-van Halewijn EA, Honing C. The DOM project for the early detection of breast cancer, Utrecht, The Netherlands. J Chronic Dis 1984; 37: 144.
  • 25
    Bloemberg BPM, Kromhout D, Jansen A, Goddijn HE. Reproducibility and validity of a short self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Thesis, Leiden University, 1993; 4565.
  • 26
    NEVO. Nederlands Voedingsstoffenbestand 1993. 1993. Brochure 202.
  • 27
    Meulenbelt I, Droog S, Trommelen GJ, Boomsma DI, Slagboom PE. High-yield noninvasive human genomic DNA isolation method for genetic studies in geographically dispersed families and populations. Am J Hum Genet 1995; 57: 12524.
  • 28
    van der Hel OL, van der Luijt RB, Bueno de Mesquita HB, van Noord PA, Slothouber B, Roest M, van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE, Pearson PL, Peeters PH. Quality and quantity of DNA isolated from frozen urine in population-based research. Anal Biochem 2002; 304: 20611.
  • 29
    Ulrich CM, Bigler J, Sibert J, Greene EA, Sparks R, Carlson CS, Potter JD. Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) polymorphisms in African-American and Caucasian populations. Hum Mutat 2002; 20: 40910.
  • 30
    Biotage. Pyrosequencing AB. Accessed 8th September 2004.
  • 31
    Zhao LP, Li SS, Khalid N. A method for the assessment of disease associations with single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes and environmental variables in case–control studies. Am J Hum Genet 2003; 72: 123150.
  • 32
    UCLA. Power calculator. Accessed 10th October 2005.
  • 33
    NCBI. dbSNP. Accessed 18th April 2005.
  • 34
    Lin HJ, Lakkides KM, Keku TO, Reddy ST, Louie AD, Kau IH, Zhou H, Gim JS, Ma HL, Matthies CF, Dai A, Huang HF, et al. Prostaglandin H synthase 2 variant (Val511Ala) in African Americans may reduce the risk for colorectal neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 130515.
  • 35
    Koh WP, Yuan JM, van den BD, Lee HP, Yu MC. Interaction between cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphism and dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on colon cancer risk: the Singapore Chinese health study. Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 17604.
  • 36
    Ulrich CM, Whitton J, Yu JH, Sibert J, Sparks R, Potter JD, Bigler J. PTGS2 (COX-2)-765G>C promoter variant reduces risk of colorectal adenoma among nonusers of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 61619.
  • 37
    Takada Y, Bhardwaj A, Potdar P, Aggarwal BB. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents differ in their ability to suppress NF-κB activation, inhibition of expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin D1, and abrogation of tumor cell proliferation. Oncogene 2004; 23: 924758.
  • 38
    Campa D, Zienolddiny S, Maggini V, Skaug V, Haugen A, Canzian F. Association of a common polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene with risk of non-small cell lung cancer. Carcinogenesis 2004; 25: 22935.
  • 39
    Hu Z, Miao X, Ma H, Wang X, Tan W, Wei Q, Lin D, Shen H. A common polymorphism in the 3′UTR of cyclooxygenase 2/prostaglandin synthase 2 gene and risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Lung Cancer 2005; 48: 1117.
  • 40
    Cipollone F, Toniato E, Martinotti S, Fazia M, Iezzi A, Cuccurullo C, Pini B, Ursi S, Vitullo G, Averna M, Arca M, Montali A, et al. A polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene as an inherited protective factor against myocardial infarction and stroke. JAMA 2004; 291: 22218.
  • 41
    Papafili A, Hill MR, Brull DJ, McAnulty RJ, Marshall RP, Humphries SE, Laurent GJ. Common promoter variant in cyclooxygenase-2 represses gene expression: evidence of role in acute-phase inflammatory response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002; 22: 16316.
  • 42
    Kang S, Kim YB, Kim MH, Yoon KS, Kim JW, Park NH, Song YS, Kang D, Yoo KY, Kang SB, Lee HP. Polymorphism in the nuclear factor κ-B binding promoter region of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Cancer Lett 2005; 217: 1116.
  • 43
    Panguluri RC, Long LO, Chen W, Wang S, Coulibaly A, Ukoli F, Jackson A, Weinrich S, Ahaghotu C, Isaacs W, Kittles RA. COX-2 gene promoter haplotypes and prostate cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 2004; 25: 9616.
  • 44
    Shi J, Misso NL, Duffy DL, Thompson PJ, Kedda MA. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene is not associated with asthma and atopy in an Australian population. Clin Exp Allergy 2004; 34: 171418.
  • 45
    Gong Z, Xie D, Deng Z, Bostick RM, Muga SJ, Hurley TG, Hebert JR. The PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and risk for incident sporadic colorectal adenomas. Carcinogenesis 2005; 26: 57985.
  • 46
    Landi S, Moreno V, Gioia-Patricola L, Guino E, Navarro M, de Oca J, Capella G, Canzian F. Association of common polymorphisms in inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)6, IL8, tumor necrosis factor α, NFKB1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ with colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 35606.
  • 47
    Augustsson K, Michaud DS, Rimm EB, Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. A prospective study of intake of fish and marine fatty acids and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 647.
  • 48
    Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of ω-6/ω-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 2002; 56: 36579.
  • 49
    Hirschhorn JN, Daly MJ. Genome-wide association studies for common diseases and complex traits. Nat Rev Genet 2005; 6: 95108.