• 1
    Gidlow DA. Lead toxicity. Occup Med (Lond) 2004; 54: 7684.
  • 2
    Inorganic and organic lead compounds. In: Proceedings of the IARC working group on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Lyon, France, Feb 10–17, 2004. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Human, vol. 87. Lyon, France: IARC, 2004.
  • 3
    Landrigan PJ. Strategies for epidemiologic studies of lead in bone in occupationally exposed populations. Environ Health Perspect 1991; 91: 816.
  • 4
    Okun A, Cooper G, Bailer AJ, Bena J, Stayner L. Trends in occupational lead exposure since the 1978 OSHA lead standard. Am J Ind Med 2004; 45: 55872.
  • 5
    Muntner P, Menke A, DeSalvo KB, Rabito FA, Batuman V. Continued decline in blood lead levels among adults in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 215561.
  • 6
    Maas RP, Patch SC, Pandolfo TJ, Druhan JL, Gandy NF. Lead content and exposure from children's and adult's jewelry products. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2005; 74: 43744.
  • 7
    Roberts JR, Hulsey TC, Curtis GB, Reigart JR. Using geographic information systems to assess risk for elevated blood lead levels in children. Public Health Rep 2003; 118: 2219.
  • 8
    Mielke HW, Reagan PL. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure. Environ Health Perspect 1998; 106 ( Suppl. 1): 21729.
  • 9
    Leighton J, Klitzman S, Sedlar S, Matte T, Cohen NL. The effect of lead-based paint hazard remediation on blood lead levels of lead poisoned children in New York City. Environ Res 2003; 92: 18290.
  • 10
    Lanphear BP, Burgoon DA, Rust SW, Eberly S, Galke W. Environmental exposures to lead and urban children's blood lead levels. Environ Res 1998; 76: 12030.
  • 11
    Gasana J, Chamorro A. Environmental lead contamination in Miami inner-city area. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2002; 12: 26572.
  • 12
    Meyer PA, Pivetz T, Dignam TA, Homa DM, Schoonover J, Brody D. Surveillance for elevated blood lead levels among children—United States, 1997–2001. MMWR Surveill Summ 2003; 52: 121.
  • 13
    Chadha A, McKelvey LD, Mangis JK. Targeting lead in the multimedia environment in the continental United States. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 1998; 48: 315.
  • 14
    Hu H, Payton M, Korrick S, Aro A, Sparrow D, Weiss ST, Rotnitzky A. Determinants of bone and blood lead levels among community-exposed middle-aged to elderly men. The normative aging study. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 74959.
  • 15
    Hu H, Rabinowitz M, Smith D. Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of chronic toxicity: conceptual paradigms. Environ Health Perspect 1998; 106: 18.
  • 16
    Rabinowitz MB. Toxicokinetics of bone lead. Environ Health Perspect 1991; 91: 337.
  • 17
    Ohgaki H, Kleihues P. Epidemiology and etiology of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2005; 109: 93108.
  • 18
    Batchelor TT, Dorfman MV, Hunter DJ. Epidemiology, pathology, and imaging of brain tumors. In: BlackPM, LoefflerJS, eds. Cancer of the nervous system. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. 113.
  • 19
    Wrensch M, Minn Y, Chew T, Bondy M, Berger MS. Epidemiology of primary brain tumors: current concepts and review of the literature. Neuro Oncol 2002; 4: 27899.
  • 20
    El-Zein R, Minn AY, Wrensch M, Bondy M. Epidemiology of brain tumors. In: LevinVA, ed. Cancer in the nervous system, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. 25266.
  • 21
    Savitz D, Trichopoulos D. Brain cancer. In: AdamiHO, HunterD, TrichopoulosD, eds. Textbook of cancer epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. 486503.
  • 22
    Inskip PD, Linet MS, Heineman EF. Etiology of brain tumors in adults. Epidemiol Rev 1995; 17: 382414.
  • 23
    Gerhardsson L, Englyst V, Lundstrom NG, Nordberg G, Sandberg S, Steinvall F. Lead in tissues of deceased lead smelter workers. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1995; 9: 13643.
  • 24
    Silbergeld EK. Facilitative mechanisms of lead as a carcinogen. Mutat Res 2003; 533: 12133.
  • 25
    Silbergeld EK, Waalkes M, Rice JM. Lead as a carcinogen: experimental evidence and mechanisms of action. Am J Ind Med 2000; 38: 31623.
  • 26
    Zawirska B, Medras K. The role of the kidneys in disorders of porphyrin metabolism during carcinogenesis induced with lead acetate. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 1972; 20: 25772.
  • 27
    Hass GM, McDonald JH, Oyasu R, Battifora HA, Paloucek JT. Renal neoplasia induced by combinations of dietary lead subacetate and N-2-fluoenylacetamide. In: KingJSJ, ed. Renal neoplasia. Boston, MA: Little Brown Co., 1967. 377412.
  • 28
    Oyasu R, Battifora HA, Clasen RA, McDonald JH, Hass GM. Induction of cerebral gliomas in rats with dietary lead subacetate and 2-acetylaminofluorene. Cancer Res 1970; 30: 124861.
  • 29
    Anttila A, Heikkila P, Nykyri E, Kauppinen T, Pukkala E, Hernberg S, Hemminki K. Risk of nervous system cancer among workers exposed to lead. J Occup Environ Med 1996; 38: 1316.
  • 30
    Anttila A, Heikkila P, Pukkala E, Nykyri E, Kauppinen T, Hernberg S, Hemminki K. Excess lung cancer among workers exposed to lead. Scand J Work Environ Health 1995; 21: 4609.
  • 31
    Cocco P, Dosemeci M, Heineman EF. Brain cancer and occupational exposure to lead. J Occup Environ Med 1998; 40: 93742.
  • 32
    Cocco P, Heineman EF, Dosemeci M. Occupational risk factors for cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) among US women. Am J Ind Med 1999; 36: 704.
  • 33
    Navas-Acien A, Pollan M, Gustavsson P, Floderus B, Plato N, Dosemeci M. Interactive effect of chemical substances and occupational electromagnetic field exposure on the risk of gliomas and meningiomas in Swedish men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 167883.
  • 34
    Navas-Acien A, Pollan M, Gustavsson P, Plato N. Occupation, exposure to chemicals and risk of gliomas and meningiomas in Sweden. Am J Ind Med 2002; 42: 21427.
  • 35
    Rogot E, Sorlie PD, Johnson NJ, Glover CS, Treasure DW. A mortality study of one million persons by demographic, social and economic factors: 1979–1981 follow-up. First data book. National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, 1988.
  • 36
    Rogot E, Sorlie PD, Johnson NJ, Schmitt C. A mortality study of 1.3 million persons by demographic, social and economic factors: 1979–1985 follow-up. Second data book. National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, 1992.
  • 37
    Muntaner C, Sorlie P, O'Campo P, Johnson N, Backlund E. Occupational hierarchy, economic sector, and mortality from cardiovascular disease among men and women. Findings from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Ann Epidemiol 2001; 11: 194201.
  • 38
    Cocco P, Ward MH, Dosemeci M. Risk of stomach cancer associated with 12 workplace hazards: analysis of death certificates from 24 states of the United States with the aid of job exposure matrices. Occup Environ Med 1999; 56: 7817.
  • 39
    Kposowa AJ. Suicide mortality in the United States: differentials by industrial and occupational groups. Am J Ind Med 1999; 36: 64552.
  • 40
    Honda Y, Macaluso M, Brill I. A SAS program for the stratified analysis of follow-up data. J Occup Health 1998; 40: 1547.
  • 41
    Katz MH, Hauck WW. Proportional hazards (Cox) regression. J Gen Intern Med 1993; 8: 70211.
  • 42
    Breslow NE, Lubin JH, Marek P, Langholz B. Multiplicative models and cohort analysis. J Am Stat Assoc 1983; 78: 112.
  • 43
    Klein JP, Rizzo JD, Zhang MJ, Keiding N. Statistical methods for the analysis and presentation of the results of bone marrow transplants. Part 2: regression modeling. Bone Marrow Transplant 2001; 28: 100111.
  • 44
    Wood J, Richardson D, Wing S. A simple program to create exact person-time data in cohort analyses. Int J Epidemiol 1997; 26: 3959.
  • 45
    Sun J, Ono Y, Takeuchi Y. A simple method for calculating the exact confidence interval of the standardized mortality ratio with an SAS function. J Occup Health 1996; 38: 1967.
  • 46
    Morris JA, Gardner MJ. Calculating confidence intervals for relative risks (odds ratios) and standardised ratios and rates. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 296: 13136.
  • 47
    Frome EL, Checkoway H. Epidemiologic programs for computers and calculators. Use of Poisson regression models in estimating incidence rates and ratios. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 121: 30923.
  • 48
    Frome EL, Morris MD. Evaluating goodness of fit of Poisson regression models in cohort studies. American Statistician 1989; 43: 1447.
  • 49
    Davis FG, McCarthy BJ. Epidemiology of brain tumors. Curr Opin Neurol 2000; 13: 63540.
  • 50
    Landrigan PJ, Boffetta P, Apostoli P. The reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of lead: a critical review. Am J Ind Med 2000; 38: 23143.
  • 51
    Steenland K, Boffetta P. Lead and cancer in humans: where are we now? Am J Ind Med 2000; 38: 2959.
  • 52
    Hayes RB. The carcinogenicity of metals in humans. Cancer Causes Control 1997; 8: 37185.
  • 53
    Fu H, Boffetta P. Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data. Occup Environ Med 1995; 52: 7381.
  • 54
    Vainio H. Lead and cancer—association or causation? Scand J Work Environ Health 1997; 23: 13.
  • 55
    Cooper WC, Wong O, Kheifets L. Mortality among employees of lead battery plants and lead-producing plants, 1947–1980. Scand J Work Environ Health 1985; 11: 33145.
  • 56
    Sweeney MH, Beaumont JJ, Waxweiler RJ, Halperin WE. An investigation of mortality from cancer and other causes of death among workers employed at an east Texas chemical plant. Arch Environ Health 1986; 41: 238.
  • 57
    Sankila R, Karjalainen S, Pukkala E, Oksanen H, Hakulinen T, Teppo L, Hakama M. Cancer risk among glass factory workers: an excess of lung cancer? Br J Ind Med 1990; 47: 8158.
  • 58
    Steenland K, Selevan S, Landrigan P. The mortality of lead smelter workers: an update. Am J Public Health 1992; 82: 16414.
  • 59
    Cocco PL, Carta P, Belli S, Picchiri GF, Flore MV. Mortality of Sardinian lead and zinc miners: 1960–88. Occup Environ Med 1994; 51: 67482.
  • 60
    Gerhardsson L, Hagmar L, Rylander L, Skerfving S. Mortality and cancer incidence among secondary lead smelter workers. Occup Environ Med 1995; 52: 66772.
  • 61
    Cocco P, Hua F, Boffetta P, Carta P, Flore C, Flore V, Onnis A, Picchiri GF, Colin D. Mortality of Italian lead smelter workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1997; 23: 1523.
  • 62
    Lundstrom NG, Nordberg G, Englyst V, Gerhardsson L, Hagmar L, Jin T, Rylander L, Wall S. Cumulative lead exposure in relation to mortality and lung cancer morbidity in a cohort of primary smelter workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1997; 23: 2430.
  • 63
    Wong O, Harris F. Cancer mortality study of employees at lead battery plants and lead smelters, 1947–1995. Am J Ind Med 2000; 38: 25570.
  • 64
    Englyst V, Lundstrom NG, Gerhardsson L, Rylander L, Nordberg G. Lung cancer risks among lead smelter workers also exposed to arsenic. Sci Total Environ 2001; 273: 7782.
  • 65
    Jemal A, Graubard BI, Devesa SS, Flegal KM. The association of blood lead level and cancer mortality among whites in the United States. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110: 3259.
  • 66
    Wesseling C, Pukkala E, Neuvonen K, Kauppinen T, Boffetta P, Partanen T. Cancer of the brain and nervous system and occupational exposures in Finnish women. J Occup Environ Med 2002; 44: 6638.
  • 67
    Mallin K, Rubin M, Joo E. Occupational cancer mortality in Illinois white and black males, 1979–1984, for seven cancer sites. Am J Ind Med 1989; 15: 699717.
  • 68
    Hu J, Johnson KC, Mao Y, Guo L, Zhao X, Jia X, Bi D, Huang G, Liu R. Risk factors for glioma in adults: a case–control study in northeast China. Cancer Detect Prev 1998; 22: 1008.
  • 69
    Hu J, Little J, Xu T, Zhao X, Guo L, Jia X, Huang G, Bi D, Liu R. Risk factors for meningioma in adults: a case–control study in northeast China. Int J Cancer 1999; 83: 299304.
  • 70
    Carozza SE, Wrensch M, Miike R, Newman B, Olshan AF, Savitz DA, Yost M, Lee M. Occupation and adult gliomas. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 83846.
  • 71
    Auvinen A, Hietanen M, Luukkonen R, Koskela RS. Brain tumors and salivary gland cancers among cellular telephone users. Epidemiology 2002; 13: 3569.
  • 72
    Schlehofer B, Hettinger I, Ryan P, Blettner M, Preston-Martin S, Little J, Arslan A, Ahlbom A, Giles GG, Howe GR, Menegoz F, Rodvall Y et al. Occupational risk factors for low grade and high grade glioma: results from an international case control study of adult brain tumours. Int J Cancer 2005; 113: 11625.
  • 73
    Inskip PD, Tarone RE, Hatch EE, Wilcosky TC, Fine HA, Black PM, Loeffler JS, Shapiro WR, Selker RG, Linet MS. Sociodemographic indicators and risk of brain tumours. Int J Epidemiol 2003; 32: 22533.
  • 74
    Zheng T, Cantor KP, Zhang Y, Keim S, Lynch CF. Occupational risk factors for brain cancer: a population-based case–control study in Iowa. J Occup Environ Med 2001; 43: 31724.
  • 75
    Parent ME, Siemiatycki J, Fritschi L. Occupational exposures and gastric cancer. Epidemiology 1998; 9: 4855.
  • 76
    Kamel F, Umbach DM, Munsat TL, Shefner JM, Hu H, Sandler DP. Lead exposure and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Epidemiology 2002; 13: 3119.
  • 77
    Gracia CR, Sammel MD, Coutifaris C, Guzick DS, Barnhart KT. Occupational exposures and male infertility. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 162: 72933.
  • 78
    Jackson LW, Correa-Villasenor A, Lees PS, Dominici F, Stewart PA, Breysse PN, Matanoski G. Parental lead exposure and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2004; 70: 18593.
  • 79
    Kerr MA, Nasca PC, Mundt KA, Michalek AM, Baptiste MS, Mahoney MC. Parental occupational exposures and risk of neuroblastoma: a case–control study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 63543.
  • 80
    Gorell JM, Johnson CC, Rybicki BA, Peterson EL, Kortsha GX, Brown GG, Richardson RJ. Occupational exposures to metals as risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1997; 48: 6508.
  • 81
    De Girolami U, Smith TW. Neuropathology of central nervous system tumors. In: BlackPM, LoefflerJS, eds. Cancer of the nervous system. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. p. 1545.
  • 82
    DeAngelis LM, Posner JB. Cancer of the central nervous system and pituitary gland. In: LenhardRE, OsteenRT, GanslerT, eds. Clinical oncology. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2001. p. 653703.
  • 83
    Kleihues P, Louis DN, Scheithauer BW, Rorke LB, Reifenberger G, Burger PC, Cavenee WK. The WHO classification of tumors of the nervous system. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2002; 61: 21525; Discussion 26–9.
  • 84
    CBTRUS. Statistical report: primary brain tumors in the United States, 1997–2001. Hinsdale, IL: Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, 2004.
  • 85
    Doolittle ND. State of the science in brain tumor classification. Semin Oncol Nurs 2004; 20: 22430.
  • 86
    Hill CI, Nixon CS, Ruehmeier JL, Wolf LM. Brain tumors. Phys Ther 2002; 82: 496502.
  • 87
    McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L. Brain cancer and cosmetic breast implants: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Ann Plast Surg 2004; 52: 1157.
  • 88
    Gomez-Marin O, Fleming LE, Caban A, Leblanc WG, Lee DJ, Pitman T. Longest held job in U.S. occupational groups: the National Health Interview Survey. J Occup Environ Med 2005; 47: 7990.
  • 89
    van Wijngaarden E, Stewart PA. Critical literature review of determinants and levels of occupational benzene exposure for United States community-based case–control studies. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 2003; 18: 67893.
  • 90
    Blair A, Stewart WF, Stewart PA, Sandler DP, Axelson O, Vineis P, Checkoway H, Savitz D, Pearce N, Rice C. A philosophy for dealing with hypothesized uncontrolled confounding in epidemiological investigations. Med Lav 1995; 86: 10610.