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Keywords:

  • colorectal cancer chemoprevention;
  • anthocyanin;
  • analysis

Abstract

Anthocyanins are dietary flavonoids, which can prevent carcinogen-induced colorectal cancer in rats. Here, the hypotheses were tested that Mirtoselect, an anthocyanin mixture from bilberry, or isolated cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, interfere with intestinal adenoma formation in the ApcMin mouse, a genetic model of human familial adenomatous polyposis, and that consumption of C3G or Mirtoselect generates measurable levels of anthocyanins in the murine biophase. ApcMin mice ingested C3G or Mirtoselect at 0.03, 0.1 or 0.3% in the diet for 12 weeks, and intestinal adenomas were counted. Plasma, urine and intestinal mucosa were analyzed for presence of anthocyanins by high-pressure liquid chromatography with detection by UV spectrophotometry (520 nm) or tandem mass spectrometry (multiple reaction monitoring). Ingestion of either C3G or Mirtoselect reduced adenoma load dose-dependently. At the highest doses of C3G and Mirtoselect adenoma numbers were decreased by 45% (p < 0.001) or 30% (p < 0.05), respectively, compared to controls. Anthocyanins were found at the analytical detection limit in the plasma and at quantifiable levels in the intestinal mucosa and urine. Anthocyanin glucuronide and methyl metabolites were identified in intestine and urine. Total anthocyanin levels in mice on C3G or Mirtoselect were 43 ng and 8.1 μg/g tissue, respectively, in the intestinal mucosa, and 7.2 and 12.3 μg/ml in the urine. The efficacy of C3G and Mirtoselect in the ApcMin mouse renders the further development of anthocyanins as potential human colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents worthwhile. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.