Prospective study of body mass index, height, physical activity and incidence of bladder cancer in US men and women

Authors

  • Crystal N. Holick,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    • Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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  • Edward L. Giovannucci,

    1. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    2. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    3. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
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  • Meir J. Stampfer,

    1. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    2. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    3. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
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  • Dominique S. Michaud

    1. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    2. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
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Abstract

We evaluated prospectively the association between body mass index (BMI), height, recreational physical activity and the risk of bladder cancer among US adults. Data were used from 2 ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study, with 3,542,012 years of follow-up and 866 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 507; women = 359) for the anthropometric analysis and 1,890,476 years of follow-up and 706 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 502; women = 204) for the physical activity analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI, height, physical activity and bladder cancer risk adjusting for age, pack-years of cigarette smoking and current smoking. Estimates from each cohort were pooled using a random-effects model. We observed no association between baseline BMI and bladder cancer risk, even when we compared a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2 to a BMI of 18–22.9 kg/m2 [pooled multivariate (MV) RR, 1.16; 95% CI: 0.89–1.52]. A weak, but statistically significant, association was observed for the same comparison after excluding bladder cancer cases diagnosed within the first 4 years of follow-up (pooled MV RR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01–1.76). Height was not related to bladder cancer risk (pooled MV RR, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.65–1.03, top vs. bottom quintile). Total recreational physical activity also was not associated with the risk of bladder cancer (pooled MV RR, 0.97; 95% CI: 0.77–1.24, top vs. bottom quintile). Our findings do not support a role for BMI, height or physical activity in bladder carcinogenesis. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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